John Q. Barrett is a Professor of Law at St. John's University in New York City, where he teaches Constitutional Law, Criminal Procedure, and Legal History. He is on research leave during the 2020-21 academic year. Professor Barrett also is the Elizabeth S. Lenna Fellow and a Board member at the Robert H. Jackson Center in Jamestown, New York. He is a graduate of Georgetown University and Harvard Law School.
Work on Justice Jackson Professor Barrett is writing a biography of the late U.S. Supreme Court Justice and Nuremberg prosecutor Robert H. Jackson (1892-1954). This work will include the first inside account of Justice Jackson's service, by appointment of President Truman, as the chief prosecutor at Nuremberg, Germany, of the principal surviving Nazi leaders following World War II.
The Jackson List: Professor Barrett regularly sends email to many thousands of subscribers around the world who are interested in Justice Jackson and related topics. To read archived copies of past Jackson List posts, click here. To join the Jackson List, a one-way list that does not display recipient identities or email addresses, send a "subscribe" note to [email protected].
Justice Jackson's book That Man: Fifty years after Robert Jackson's death, Professor Barrett discovered and edited Jackson's previously unknown manuscript, now an acclaimed book, That Man: An Insider's Portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt (Oxford University Press). That Man, an eloquent memoir of FDR from Jackson first meeting him in 1911 through their close working relationship and friendship during the New Deal years, and World War II, is both FDR biography and Jackson autobiography.
Some recent activities: On August 8, Professor Barrett lectured about Justice Jackson in an online international program, “The Age of Robert H. Jackson: London, Nuremberg, Today,” commemorating the August 8, 1945, signing of the historic London Agreement (YouTube, at 10:10). On July 27, Professor Barrett gave an online lecture, “Summing Up at Nuremberg 74 Years Ago This Week: Justice Robert H. Jackson’s Closing Statement at the Nazi War Crimes Trial,” hosted by the Holocaust Memorial & Toleration Center of Nassau County, NY (YouTube). On July 6, Professor Barrett interviewed Ruth Marcus, Chautauqua Institution's 16th annual Robert H. Jackson Lecturer on the Supreme Court of the United States (YouTube). On June 15, Professor Barrett delivered an online lecture, "Understanding the Nuremberg Trials,” in a Museum of Jewish Heritage teacher training program (YouTube). On January 30, Professor Barrett interviewed Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan at the New York State Bar Association's gala dinner (video). Earlier that day, he delivered a lecture, “Charles Reich’s New Deal,” at Touro Law School's conference Charles A, Reich: A Commemoration of His Life & Legacy (video). On November 15, 2019, Professor Barrett moderated a panel, “An Independent Judiciary: The Shield of a Free Society,” at the American Bar Association/Duke University/Appellate Judges Education Institute (AJEI) Summit in Washington, D.C. In October, he lectured on "The U.S. Supreme Court, October Term 2018, and A Look Ahead,” at Federal Bar Association in Central Islip, New York, and at the Queens County Bar Association, and he was a commentator at the Holocaust Memorial & Toleration Center of Nassau County following a showing of the film “Prosecuting Evil: The Extraordinary World of Ben Ferencz.” On September 17, Professor Barrett was the Constitution Day speaker at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library & Museum. In August, he participated in the plenary session panel, “And Then They Came for Us: The Perils of Silence,” at the American Bar Association annual meeting in San Francisco. (For more, see the c.v. link to the right and the video links below.)
Before joining the St. John's faculty, John Q. Barrett was Counselor to Inspector General Michael R. Bromwich, U.S. Department of Justice, from 1994-95. From 1988-93, Barrett was Associate Counsel in the Office of Independent Counsel Lawrence E. Walsh (Iran/Contra). From 1986-88, Barrett was a law clerk to Judge A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.
In addition to teaching Constitutional Law and Criminal Procedure, Professor Barrett has taught seminars on American Judicial Biography, the Hughes and Stone Courts (1930-46), and the Nuremberg Trial; Introduction to Law & the Legal Profession; Professional Responsibility; and White Collar Crime. He also has taught Constitutional Law modules in St. John's Summer Prep Program for College Student and Nuremberg-related courses in summer programs at the University of Potsdam Law School in Germany, at ISDE/University of Barcelona in Spain, and in Creighton University's program in Nuremberg.
Professor Barrett speaks regularly about the U.S. Supreme Court, Justice Jackson, Nuremberg, FDR, and other legal and historical topics in public venues and to community, campus, religious, corporate, legal profession, and other audiences and groups throughout the United States and abroad. Professor Barrett also is a regular national media commentator on legal and historical issues.
Professor Barrett serves on the board of the Historical Society of the New York Courts. He previously chaired the New York City Bar Association's Legal History Committee and served on the International Expert Advisory Council of the International Nuremberg Principles Academy. At St. John's, he chairs the Student-Faculty Liaison Committee and is adviser to student chapters of the American Constitution Society (ACS) and the Historical Society of the New York Courts.
Last updated August 24, 2020.
John Q. Barrett, Professor of Law at St. John's University in New York City and Elizabeth S. Lenna Fellow at the Robert H. Jackson Center in Jamestown, New York, appears in the following:
4/13/2018 video: Lecture, "Justice Jackson & the Holocaust," at an International March of the Living, Rutgers University, and the New Jersey State Bar Association conference in Krakow, Poland (starts at 2:47:10).
11/13/2017 video: Panel remarks, "The Mueller Investigation: A Primer on the Special Counsel and Russian Meddling in the U.S. Election," at St. John's.
11/1/2017 video: Leon Silverman Lecture, "Attorney General Robert H. Jackson & President Franklin D. Roosevelt," delivered at the Supreme Court of the United States (introduction by Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr.).
10/19/2017 video: Lecture, "From Nuremberg to Eichmann," at the Museum of Jewish Heritage, New York, New York.
8/16/2017 video: Introduction of Judge Jon O. Newman delivering Chautauqua Institution's 13th annual Robert H. Jackson Lecture on the Supreme Court of the United States.
7/28/2017 video: Lecture, "Justice Robert H. Jackson & His Brethren," delivered at Chautauqua Institution, Chautauqua, New York.
6/23/2017 video: Lecture, "Justice Jackson, Immigrants, Citizens, Power, & Liberty," delivered at the Robert H. Jackson Center, Jamestown, New York.
10/29/2016 video, Lecture, "The Nuremberg Trial: Seventy Years and Forward," delivered at the Robert H. Jackson Center, Jamestown, New York.
10/28/2016 audio, Lecture, "The Nuremberg Trials & Justice Jackson's Role," delivered at the Eric Institute of Law program on Legal Ethics and the Holocaust, held in Buffalo, NY.
10/24/2016 video, Lecture, "The Nuremberg Trial, and the Role of Robert G. Storey," delivered at The Center for American & International Law, Dallas, TX (Barrett lecture starts at 22:15).
9/30/2016 video: Lecture, "Finding Nuremberg and Its Legacies," delivered at the 10th annual International Humanitarian Law Dialogs, held at the Documentation Centre, Nuremberg, Germany.
7/11/2016 video: Introduction of Professor Tracey L. Meares, delivering Chautauqua Institution's 12th annual Robert H. Jackson Lecture.
5/4/2016 video: Lecture, "The History of the Nuremberg Trials," in the symposium, The Double Entendre of Nuremberg, convened by March of the Living International, the Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights, and Jagiellonian University, in Krakow Poland (Barrett lecture starts at 38:45).
11/20/2015 video: Nuremberg Memorium commemoration, in Palace of Justice Courtroom 600, of the 70th anniversary of the start of the Nuremberg trial (Barrett lecture starts at 16:35; moderation of roundtable discussion with three men who worked at the trial starts at 30:30).
7/8/2015 video: Introduction of Professor Laurence H. Tribe, delivering Chautauqua Institution's 11th annual Robert H. Jackson Lecture.
7/21/2014 video: Introduction of Professor Akhil Reed Amar, delivering Chautauqua Institution's 10th annual Jackson Lecture.
4/30/2014 video: Lecture, "Robert H. Jackson, Illustrious Alumnus," at Albany Law School, Albany, NY (starts at 1:12:25).
9/30/2013 video: Remarks at the Dedication of the Robert H. Jackson United States Courthouse, Buffalo, NY.
7/9/2013 video: Introduction of Professor Charles Fried, delivering Chautauqua Institution's 9th annual Jackson Lecture.
5/17/2013 video: Introduction of Chief Justice Roberts, at the Robert H. Jackson Center, Jamestown, NY, part 1 and part 2.
7/9/2012 video: Lecture, "Affected by Nuremberg?: Some Notable Cases in Justice Robert H. Jackson's Supreme Court Judging, 1946-1954," in a Special Studies court at Chautauqua Institution, Chautauqua, NY.
7/9/2012 video: Interview, "The Just-Completed U.S. Supreme Court Term, Including the Health Care Law (Obamacare) Decision," WGTE Public Media Knowledgestream.
2/2/2012 video: Lecture at Albany Law School event celebrating the centennial of alumnus Robert H. Jackson.
10/34/2011 video: James McCormick Mitchell Lecture, "Bringing Nuremberg Home: Justice Jackson's Path Back to Buffalo, October 4, 1946," at SUNY Buffalo Law School (and here, as published).
7/26/2011 video: Introduction of Slate reporter Dahlia Lithwick, delivering Chautauqua Institution's 7th annual Jackson Lecture.
2/4/2011 video: Lecture, "Justice Jackson in the Katyn Forest," at Case Western Reserve University School of Law, Cleveland, OH.
11/2/2010 video: Stephen R. Kaye Memorial Lecture, "Robert H. Jackson: Lawyer, Justice, Nuremberger ... New Yorker," at the New York City Bar Association, New York, NY (starts 10;00).
10/7/2010 video: Remarks at the Robert H. Jackson Center's 10th anniversary dinner.
5/11/2010 video: Panel discussion, "Law, Justice & the Holocaust: Lessons for Today," at the New York City Bar Association.
4/22/2010 audio: National Public Radio report on the death of Whitney R. Harris (1912-2010), Nuremberg prosecutor.
9/9/2009 video: Remarks Honoring Professor Henry T. King, Jr. (1919-2009), Case Western Reserve University School of Law, Cleveland, OH (approx. one quarter into the program).
8/5/2009 video: Remarks on Robert H. Jackson, at the annual Jackson Society dinner, Robert H. Jackson Center, Jamestown, NY.
7/7/2008 video: Lecture, "Reading The Nine," an introduction of author Jeffrey Toobin, who then delivered Chautauqua Institution's 4th annual Jackson Lecture.
11/12/2007 video: Panelist, "The Supreme Court & Presidential Power," at the Presidential Libraries/National Archives conference on "The Presidency & the Supreme Court," held at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library & Museum, Hyde Park, New York (with fellow panelists John W. Dean, Amb. C. Boyden Gray, Anthony Lewis, Beth Nolan and Sen. Paul Sarbanes and moderator Nina Totenberg).
9/3/2007 audio: Interviewed for "Gonzales Case Echoes FDR's AG Problems," a report on National Public Radio's "Morning Edition."
8/29/2007 video: Opening Lecture, " From the Hague (1907) to Nuremberg and Today: 100+ Years of Looking Forward to International Humanitarian Law," at The International Humanitarian Law Dialogs: The Laws of War: Past, Present, and Future, a conference hosted by The American Society of International Law, the Robert H. Jackson Center, Washington University's Whitney R. Harris Institute for Global Legal Studies, Syracuse University College of Law and the Chautauqua Institution, at the Athenaeum Hotel, Chautauqua Institution, Chautauqua, NY.
7/9/2007 video: Lecture, "Solicitors General, Past & Future," an introduction of Seth P. Waxman, who then delivered Chautauqua Institution's 3rd annual Robert H. Jackson Lecture on the Supreme Court of the United States, at Chautauqua, New York.
9/30/2006 video: Lecture, "The Crucial Role of Justice Robert H. Jackson," at a 60th anniversary conference, "Judgment at Nuremberg," at Washington University School of Law, St. Louis, MO.
9/28/2006 audio: Interviewed in a Dutch public television documentary, Het proces van Neurenberg.
4/28/2006 video: Remarks on Justice Jackson & West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943), at the Jackson Center.
4/10/2006 audio: Interviewed on the U.K.'s Astraea Magazine's web radio regarding his book discovery, Justice Robert H. Jackson's That Man: An Insider's Portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
11/3/2005 video: Speaker on Justice Jackson at Nuremberg, at the Harvard Law School/Facing History and Ourselves conference, "Pursuring Human Dignity: The Legacies of Nuremberg for International Law, Human Rights & Education," Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
7/2005 video: Remarks on the August 8, 1945, London Agreement, at the Jackson Center.
12/1/2004 video: Speaker Justice Jackson at Nuremberg, in the series "International Justice? The Roots and Legacies of the Nuremberg Trials," The Harvard Law School/Facing History & Ourselves Program, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA.
11/15/2004: Excerpts on Robert H. Jackson coming to the law, and on the place of Albany in his life, from a keynote lecture at Albany Law School's Jackson tribute program.
4/29/2004 video: Introduction of Linda Brown Thompson and Cheryl Brown Henderson, daughters of Brown v. Board of Education lead plaintiff Oliver Brown, at a Robert H. Jackson Center forum in the Chautauqua Institution Amphitheater, Chautauqua, NY.
11/8/2003 video: Miami Book Festival lecture regarding That Man.
8/26/2003 audio: "All Things Considered," National Public Radio interview by Robert Siegel regarding That Man.
8/11/2003 audio: "The Leonard Lopate Show," WNYC New York Public Radio interview by Jeffrey Toobin regarding That Man.
7/23/2003: Chautauqua Institution lecture, "Justice Robert H. Jackson on Security, Liberty and Law."
5/16/2003 video: Introduction of Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist at the dedication of the Robert H. Jackson Center, Jamestown, NY.
7/18/2001: Chautauqua Institution lecture on Justice Robert H. Jackson
Last updated May 3, 2018.
March 1-7, 2020: Teaching in Nuremberg, Germany
April 3, 2020: National Archives, Washington, D.C.
April 4, 2020: Organization of American Historians annual meeting, Washington, D.C.
April 18. 2020: Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ
April 20, 2020: Brandeis Society, Westchester County, NY
May 14, 2019: Robert H. Jackson Center, Jamestown, NY
July 6, 2020: Chautauqua Institution, Chautauqua, NY
July 15, 2020: Nuremberg, Germany.
August 8, 2020: London, United Kingdom
November 8, 2020: Holocaust Museum, Skokie, IL
Last updated February 18, 2020.
The St. John's Path to New York Judicial Service, 93 St. John's Law Review 101-106 (forthcoming 2020).
Robert H. Jackson, The Faith of My Fathers, 168 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1-16 (2019) (Introduction and Afterword) (SSRN abstract).
Attorney General Robert H. Jackson and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 44 Journal of Supreme Court History 90-108 (2019).
Justice Jackson in the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Cases, 13 Florida International University Law Review 827-52 (2019).
Vinson, Reed, and "Reds": The Second Circuit Justices' Denials of Bail to the Bail Fund Trustees, 7 Journal of Law (2 Journal of In-Chambers Practice) 19-32 (2017) (online version).
A New Chief Justice in the Sight of His Predecessor: Stone and Hughes, Summer 1941, 42 Journal of Supreme Court History 202-08 (2017) (online version).
The Nuremberg Trials: A Summary Introduction, 39 Loyola Int'l & Comparative Law Review 336-50 (2017).
Bringing Nuremberg Home: Justice Jackson's Path Back to Buffalo, October 4, 1946, 60 Buffalo Law Review 295-321 (April 2012) (SSRN abstract).
Rehnquist's Missing Letter: A Former Law Clerk's 1955 Thoughts on Justice Jackson and Brown, 53 Boston College Law Review 631-660 (March 2012) (with Brad Snyder) (SSRN).
Henry T. King, Jr., at Case, and on the Nuremberg Case, 60 Case Western Reserve Law Review 583-92 (Spring 2010) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file of draft), reprinted in Henry T. King, Jr., A Life Dedicated to International Justice (Carolina Academic Press, Michael P. Scharf, ed., 2011).
Supreme Court Law Clerks' Reflections of October Term 1951, Including the Steel Seizure Cases, 82 St. John's Law Review 1239-90 (Fall 2008) (with Charles C. Hileman, Abner J. Mikva, James C.N. Paul, Neal P. Rutledge, Marshall L. Small, William H. Rehnquist, Gregory L. Peterson & Ken Gormley) (co-moderator) (SSRN abstract).
A Rehnquist Ode on the Vinson Court (circa Summer 1953), Green Bag 2d 289-306 (Spring 2008) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file)
Closing Reflections on Jackson and Barnette, in Recollections of West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 81 St. John's Law Review 755, 793-96 (Fall 2007) (with Gregory L. Peterson, E. Barrett Prettyman, Jr., Shawn Francis Peters, Bennett Boskey, Gathie Barnett Edmonds & Marie Barnett Snodgrass) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file).
The Nuremberg Roles of Justice Robert H. Jackson, 6 Washington University Global Studies Law Review 511-25 (2007) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file).
The "Federalism Five" As Supreme Court Nominees, 1971-1991, 21 St. John's Journal of Legal Commentary 485-96 (Spring 2007) (SSRN abstract)
Supreme Court Law Clerks' Recollections of Brown v. Board of Education II, 79 St. John's Law Review 823-85 (2005) (introduction & moderator) (with Gordon B. Davidson, Daniel J. Meador, Earl E. Pollock & E. Barrett Prettyman, Jr.) (SSRN abstract).
A Commander's Power, A Civilian's Reason: Justice Jackson's Korematsu Dissent, 68 Law & Contemporary Problems 57-79 (Spring 2005) (SSRN abstract).
Albany in the Life Trajectory of Robert H. Jackson, 68 Albany Law Review 513-37 (2005) (SSRN abstract).
Supreme Court Law Clerks' Recollections of Brown v. Board of Education, 78 St. John's Law Review 515-67 (Summer 2004) introduction and moderator) (with John David Fassett, Earl E. Pollock, E. Barrett Prettyman, Jr., & Frank E.A. Sander) (SSRN abstract).
UT Alumnus, Supreme Court Amicus: A Texas Lawyer's Letter About Law School Segregation, April 1950," 7 The Green Bag 2d 9-14 (Autumn 2003) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file).
Justice Jackson on "What the Law's Going to Be"--At Least Until Its "Gelding," 6 The Green Bag 2d 125-30 (Winter 2003) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file).
A Jackson Portrait for Jamestown, "A Magnet in the Room," 59 Buffalo Law Review 809-817 (Fall 2002) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file).
Teacher, Student, Ticket: John Frank, Leon Higginbotham, and One Afternoon at the Supreme Court—Not a Trifling Thing, 20 Yale Law & Policy Review 311-23 (2002) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file).
Special Division Agonistes, 5 Widener Law Symposium Journal 17-48 (Winter 2000) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file).
The Leak and the Craft: A Hard Line Proposal to Stop Unaccountable Disclosures of Law Enforcement Information, 67 Fordham Law Review 613-37 (1999) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file).
Independent Counsel Law Improvements for the Next Five Years, 51 Administrative Law Review 631-56 (Spring 1999) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file).
Deciding the Stop and Frisk Cases: A Look Inside the Supreme Court’s Conference, 72 St. John’s Law Review 749-844 (Fall 1998) (PDF file).
All or Nothing, or Maybe Cooperation: Attorney General Power, Conduct, and Judgment in Relation to the Work of an Independent Counsel, 49 Mercer Law Review 519-51 (1998) (PDF file).
The Voices and Groups That Will Preserve (What We Can Preserve Of) Judicial Independence, 12 St. John's Journal of Legal Commentary 1-21 (1996) (PDF file).
Chapter author, Some Alexander Hamilton, But Not So Much Hamilton, in the New Supreme Court, in The Law of Hamilton: An American Musical (Cornell Univ. Press, Lisa A. Tucker, ed., forthcoming 2020)
Robert H. Jackson’s Cowslip Sandwich, in Table for Nine: Supreme Court Food Traditions & Recipes (Supreme Court Historical Society, Clare Cushman, ed., 2017)
Lecture, Legacies of Nuremberg, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Humanitarian Law Dialogs 63-77 (American Society of International Law, Studies in Transnational Legal Policy No. 49, 2017).
Chapter author, Herbert Hoover and the Constitution, in The Presidents and the Constitution: A Living History (Ken Gormley, ed., New York University Press, 2016).
Chapter author, No College, No Prior Clerkship...: How Jim Marsh Became Justice Jackson's Law Clerk, in Of Kings and Courtiers: More Stories of Supreme Court Law Clerks and Their Justices (Todd C. Peppers & Clare Cushman, eds., University of Virginia Press, 2015).
Contributing editor, Judges of the District of New York and the Southern District of New York, 1789 to 2014 (Federal Bar Council, 2014).
Tribute, Henry T. King, Jr., at Case, and on the Nuremberg Case, in Henry T. King, Jr.: A Life Dedicated to International Justice 29-38 (Carolina Academic Press, Michael P. Scharf, ed., 2011)
Lecture, Remembering Departed "Nurembergers", in Proceedings of the Fourth International Humanitarian Law Dialogs 17-29 (American Society of International Law, Studies in Transnational Legal Policy No. 43, Elizabeth Andersen & David M. Crane, eds., 2011) (SSRN abstract) (PDF file)
Lecture, Katherine B. Fite: The Leading Female Lawyer at London & Nuremberg, 1945, in Proceedings of the Third International Humanitarian Law Dialogs 9-30 (American Society of International Law, Studies in Transnational Legal Policy No. 42, Elizabeth Andersen & David M. Crane, eds., 2010) (PDF file)
Chapter author, Raphael Lemkin and 'Genocide' at Nuremberg, 1945-1946, in The Genocide Convention Sixty Years After Its Adoption (Christoph Safferling & Eckart Conze, eds., T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague, 2010) (PDF file)
Introducer & moderator, Nuremberg and Genocide: Historical Perspectives (with former Nuremberg prosecutors Whitney R. Harris, Henry T. King, Jr., and Benjamin B. Ferencz), in Proceedings of the Second International Humanitarian Law Dialogs 9-54 (American Society of International Law, Studies in Transnational Legal Policy No. 40, Elizabeth Andersen & David M. Crane, eds., 2009) (PDF file)
Lecture, The Path from the 1907 Hague Conference to Nuremberg and Forward, in Proceedings of the First International Humanitarian Law Dialogs (American Society of International Law, Studies in Transnational Legal Policy No. 39, Elizabeth Andersen & David M. Crane, eds., 2008) (PDF file of draft)
Chapter author, "One Good Man": The Jacksonian Shape of Nuremberg, in The Nuremberg Trials: International Criminal Law Since 1945 (Die Nürnberger Prozesse: Völkerstrafrecht seit 1945) (Herbert R. Reginbogin & Christoph J.M. Safferling, eds., K.G. Saur, München, 2006) (click here for the book's Amazon.De page)
Chapter author, Terry v. Ohio: The Fourth Amendment Reasonableness of Police Stops and Frisks Based on Less Than Probable Cause, in Criminal Procedure Stories: An In-Depth Look at Leading Criminal Procedure Cases (Carol Steiker, ed., Foundation Press, 2006)
Editor, Robert H. Jackson, That Man: An Insider's Portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt (Oxford University Press, 2003; paperback 2004)
Co-Editor, Litigation Ethics: Course Materials for Continuing Legal Education (ABA Section of Litigation, 2000) (with Professor Bruce A. Green, Fordham Law School)
* Higginbotham, A. Leon, Jr.; Jackson, Robert H.; and Walsh, Lawrence E., in The Yale Biographical Dictionary of American Law (Roger K. Newman, ed., 2009)
* Jackson, Robert Houghwout, in 11 The World Book Encyclopedia 16 (2009)
* Jackson, Robert H., in 3 Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States 3-6 (David S. Tanenhaus, ed., MacMillian Reference USA/Gale, Cengage Learning, 5 vols., 2008).