Course Descriptions

Click on a letter below to view School of Law Course Descriptions.

ACCOUNTING FOR LAWYERS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 1000)
2 credits
Open only to students who have taken no prior courses in accounting, i.e., a single prior undergraduate or post-graduate course in accounting renders a student ineligible. The course provides a basic introduction to accounting principles. The goal of the course is to provide knowledge to assist in counseling with respect to such areas as taxation, estates and mergers and acquisitions. Grades are based upon a final examination.

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
(ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND GOVERNMENT REGULATION - 1000)
3 credits
This course explores the administrative process in executive and independent regulatory agencies with emphasis on judicial review. Consideration is given to the powers vested in administrative bodies and to the constitutional, statutory and other legal limitations on agency decision making. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.  Administrative Law satisfied both a core elective requirement and the Advanced Civil Procedure Requirement.

ADVANCED ANALYTICAL SKILLS
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 2095)
2 credits
Advanced Analytical Skills is a second-year course designed to enhance students' critical thinking, writing, and exam skills.  Throughout the course, students will utilize a series of writing exercises, practice exams, and other analytical exercises to further develop their skills in critical reading, fact analysis, issue identification, and effective legal analysis for law school exams and professional legal writing.  Course enrollment is required for, and limited to, J.D. students identified by the administration as those who would benefit most from the course. Grades will be based on a midterm exam and final exam.

ADVANCED BANKRUPTCY RESEARCH
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 1020)
3 credits
In this course, students work individually with a professor to produce a substantial, original work of advanced bankruptcy scholarship.  The professor will work closely with each student to select the topic, perform the research, and commit the research to writing.  Note:  For LLM students who opt to continue with Bankruptcy Master’s Thesis, the grade for Advanced Bankruptcy Research may be deferred until completion of the Thesis course, at which time a final grade will be assigned based on the cumulative work of the student in each course.  JD students must also satisfy the requirements of Directed Research in order to earn credit for this course and will not be permitted to take this course if they already have taken or plan to take Directed Research.  Only two credits toward the JD degree may be awarded for the completion of this course.

ADVANCED CLINIC PRACTICE
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 9080)
2 credits
Many students who participate in the Consumer Justice for the Elderly: Litigation, Securities Arbitration, Child Advocacy, and Bread and Life: Immigration clinics express a desire to continue their work in the clinic for another semester. This course allows former clinic students to apply to work in the clinic for an additional semester for credit. Each of the three clinics will accept no more than 2 former students each semester. Students will work in the clinic for 13 hours a week. Faculty supervision will include weekly meetings with students to discuss casework and further development of skills and case rounds. During the semester, each advanced clinic student will have the opportunity to refine the skills they have learned, acquire new skills, and mentor new students. Interested students will apply to the appropriate clinic and will be chosen by the clinical faculty.  Pre-requisite: CONSUMER JUSTICE FOR THE ELDERLY: LITIGATION CLINIC OR CHILD ADVOCACY CLINIC OR SECURITIES ARBITRATION CLINIC OR BREAD AND LIFE: IMMIGRATION CLINIC

ADVANCED CLINIC PRACTICE (SUMMER)
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 9090)
2 credits
The Consumer Justice for the Elderly: Litigation, Securities Arbitration, Child Advocacy and Bread and Life: Immigration clinics continue to provide representation to existing clients during the summer. Students who have already participated in one of these four clinics are eligible to enroll in the Advanced Clinic. The summer students will work on clinic cases and initiatives. Students will have the opportunity to further develop and refine their lawyering skills and to develop new skills. Each student will work in the clinic for 26 hours a week, if participation is for the 7 week summer school program. For students who participate in the 9 week summer school program, they will be required to work 20 hours a week. Faculty supervision will include weekly meetings with students to discuss casework and further development of skills and case rounds. Interested students will apply to the appropriate clinic and will be chosen by the clinical faculty.  Pre-requisite: CONSUMER JUSTICE FOR THE ELDERLY: LITIGATION CLINIC OR SECURITIES ARBITRATION CLINIC OR CHILD ADVOCACY CLINIC OR BREAD AND LIFE: IMMIGRATION CLINIC

ADVANCED INTERVIEWING AND COUNSELING
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 7020)
2 credits
Building on the first year course in Lawyering, this course offers students an opportunity to develop skills in interviewing and counseling, including but not limited to gathering information, ascertaining the client's interests, developing specific goals and strategies, advising the client, negotiating an acceptable settlement, and addressing ethical considerations. Classroom work will involve the exploration of techniques of interviewing and counseling, focusing on the unique relationship of lawyer and client. Students will develop the skills studied by participating in simulated exercises that involve realistic situations raising common legal and ethical issues. Grades are based on classroom participation, demonstration of the skills taught, and the submission of written work.  Pre-requisite: Lawyering.

ADVANCED TOPICS IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY – 3010)
2 credits
This seminar will allow students to explore cutting-edge topics in intellectual property law across its different branches such as trademarks, copyright, patents, and trade secrets.  It will examine the relationship between these branches, as well as how intellectual property law is influenced by and in turn can influence other legal areas. Topics covered will change from year to year to reflect current debates in IP law and theory, but they may include the foundations and theoretical justifications of intellectual property, infringement doctrines, defenses, and remedies, and the relationship between IP doctrines and other areas of law and policy, including but not limited to information technology and privacy.  Grades will be based on either one long scholarly research paper or three shorter responses papers (75%), plus class participation (25%).  Pre-requisite: Introduction to Intellectual Property

ADVANCED TORTS
(TORTS - 1050)
2 credits
Building on the basic Torts course, this foundation course will cover in depth those areas of Tort law not covered in Torts, including tortious interference with economic relations, marketplace falsehoods, unfair competition, publicity and privacy, defamation, tortious use of judicial process, and tortious interference with civil rights. Grades will be based on a final examination and class participation.

ADVANCED TRIAL ADVOCACY: 
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 6030)
1 - 3 credits
Building on the work of the foundational course in Trial Advocacy, this course introduces students to advanced topics in trial advocacy and trial techniques.  Topics vary from semester-to-semester but may include jury selection, experts, and advanced cross-examination, or others.  The number of credits and topic for a particular semester's offering will be set forth in the registration materials.  Students who have competed or are scheduled to compete on a PTAI external team may waive into the course without taking Trial Advocacy.  Grades will be based on in- and out-of-class exercises, written assignments, and class participation.  Pre-requisite(s) - Trial Advocacy or participation on an external team with the Polestino Trial Advocacy Institute.  Pre - or co-requisite: Evidence

ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 1020)
2 credits
This course gives students an overview of the law and practice of the three primary forms of extrajudicial dispute resolution: negotiation, mediation, and arbitration.  The course includes both instruction in the legal doctrines regulating these forms of dispute resolution and exposure to the skills these processes require, through simulations, exercises, and other forms of experiential learning.  Grades are based on participation in class discussions and exercises, written assignments, and a final examination. Alternative Dispute Resolution is a required course for Dispute Resolution Society students. Pre-requisite: Lawyering

AMERICAN LEGAL HISTORY FOR INTERNATIONAL LLM
(US LEGAL STUDIES FOREIGN LAW GRADUATE - 1040)
2 - 3 Credits
This course is designed for LL.M students in the Master of Laws program who have received or who are currently earning law degrees from foreign universities.  In this course, students will examine important historical events and time periods in the United States, to understand the significance of milestone court decisions, documents, and developments of law.  Students will hone critical reading, critical thinking, and writing skills as they analyze and respond to legal documents in their historical context.  Students may enroll in either the 2-credit course or the 3-credit version of this course, but may not enroll in both.  Grades will be based on class participation (25%), writing assignments (25%), presentation (15%) and final exam (35%). Pre-requisite: Recommended: English for American Law School.

ANTITRUST LAWS & COMPETITION
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 1010)
3 credits
This is a survey course dealing with the principal federal antitrust legislation, including the Sherman Act, Clayton Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act and the Robinson-Patman Act. The course considers price fixing, conspiracies in restraint of trade, monopolization, horizontal and vertical mergers, refusals to deal, tying, exclusive dealing and price discrimination. Grades are based upon a final examination.

APPELLATE ADVOCACY
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 1030)
2 credits
This course teaches students the art and science of appellate practice, with a focus on how to write compelling briefs and present effective oral arguments.  Utilizing either the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure or provisions of New York law, the course covers reviewability, preservation, standard of review, and other essential topics of appellate practice. The course builds on the persuasive writing techniques introduced in Legal Writing II, including theme selection, argumentation, fact presentation, effective word choice, and polish.  Techniques for oral argument are also presented.  Grades are based upon writing an appellate brief, delivering an oral argument, and completing weekly homework assignments.  Prerequisite: LEGAL WRITING II.  A student may not take this course and Appellate Advocacy-Moot Court (ALSK 1031).

APPELLATE ADVOCACY MOOT COURT
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 1031)
3 credits
Offered exclusively to students in the Moot Court Honor Society, this course teaches students the art and science of appellate practice, with a focus on how to write compelling briefs and present effective oral arguments in both Supreme Court practice and in moot court competitions. Utilizing the rules of the Supreme Court of the United States and the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, the course covers reviewability, preservation, standard of review, and other essential topics of appellate practice. Through study of well-written Supreme Court briefs, the course builds on the persuasive writing techniques introduced in Legal Writing II, including theme selection, argumentation, fact presentation, effective word choice, and polish.  A substantial portion of the course is devoted to success in oral argument: preparation, delivery, responsiveness to questions, poise, and theme.  Grades are based upon writing an appellate brief, delivering an oral argument, and completing weekly homework assignments.  Prerequisites: LEGAL WRITING II and membership in the Moot Court Honor Society.  A student may not take this course and Appellate Advocacy (ALSK 1030).

APPLIED LEGAL ANALYSIS PARTS I & II
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 3070/3080)
3 credits each
The course is a two-semester, six-credit course designed to prepare J.D. students for the Multistate Bar Exam ("MBE"), the Multistate Performance Test ("MPT"), and essay writing. The course will prepare students for the MBE by providing a comprehensive review of the six multistate subjects tested on the MBE and by developing the close reading and analytical skills necessary to perform well on the exam. The course will prepare students for the MPT by familiarizing them with the documents and skills typically tested on the MPT and by teaching them how to draft a well-organized, clear document in a ninety-minute time frame. Course enrollment would be required for, and limited to, those J.D. students identified by the administration as those who would benefit most from the course. The course is not designed to provide comprehensive preparation for the bar exam and is not a substitute for a bar review course.

BANKING LAW & REGULATION
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 1030)
3 credits
This course provides an introduction to the rapidly-growing and constantly-changing area of banking law in the United States. The course explains the following areas: the historical background of the industry and public policy considerations, the duality of the system, bank holding companies, branching and other market entry problems, limitations on power of various banking organizations, the various regulatory systems and the agencies and their functions, controls in the monetary system, consumer protection, non-bank competition, the process of deregulation, and present conditions and problems. The course does not include a study of the Uniform Commercial Code. Grades are based upon a final examination.

BANKRUPTCY ADVOCACY CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 8090/9000)
8 credits: 4 in Fall, 4 in Spring
The Bankruptcy Advocacy Clinic is a two- semester clinical program available to second and third year students and evening students after their third semester if they can work in the clinic during the day. St. John's University is partnering with the NYC Bankruptcy Assistance Project of Legal Services NYC to give students the opportunity to engage in bankruptcy advocacy for debtors facing crushing debt and debilitating debt collection actions. Students will screen potential clients for bankruptcy, triage cases and prepare bankruptcy petitions for debtors to file pro se. In some cases, they may represent debtors in court, including Chapter 13 confirmation hearings, relief from stay motions, contested matters and adversary proceedings. Casework will be supervised by experienced bankruptcy attorneys. The grade will be based upon the student's overall performance in the clinic.

BANKRUPTCY AND SECURITY INTERESTS
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 3010)
2 credits
This course will examine the effect of bankruptcy on the rights of creditors holding UCC Article 9 security interests in assets of a debtor. Topics will include the impact of the automatic stay on foreclosure rights; limitations on the post-petition effectiveness of security agreements; the estate's ability to use and sell collateral; the estate's ability to avoid security interests; and the treatment and modification of secured claims in bankruptcy. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or SECURED TRANSACTIONS.

BANKRUPTCY CLERKSHIP SEMINAR
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 5080)
1 credit
This seminar examines the role of bankruptcy law clerks with the goal of preparing students to be effective bankruptcy law clerks.  Discussion topics will include advice to the new law clerk, an overview of the CM/ELF docketing system, calendar notes and “bench memos,” judicial ethics, opinion writing, reviewing motions, including a discussion of certain common motions, checking service, reviewing and drafting proposed orders and judgments, the adversary proceeding process, and selected issues in chapter 11 and chapter 13.  Students will be required to read and write weekly case summaries of decisions written by their respective judges and become familiar with the local rules and standing orders for their respective districts.  The seminar grade is based on class participation and a written bench memo assignment.  Schedule permitting, the class will visit the chambers of a bankruptcy judge to view oral argument and meet with the judge.

BANKRUPTCY COLLOQUIUM
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 5060)
2 credits
An examination of the policies that underlie the 1978 Bankruptcy Code and modern bankruptcy practice in both the individual and business contexts. Topics vary from year to year. Grades will be based on a research paper.  Recommended pre- or co-requisite: Creditors Rights.

BANKRUPTCY MASTER'S THESIS
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 1030)
3 credits
In this course, students work individually with a professor to transform an existing work of advanced bankruptcy scholarship into a Master’s thesis.  The professor will work closely with each student to refine, revise, extend, and build upon the student’s prior research, to organize it in the form of a thesis, and to prepare the student to defend the thesis before members of the bankruptcy faculty.  Open only to LLM students.  Pre-requisite: Advanced Bankruptcy Research or by permission of the instructor.

BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 3040)
2 credits
This course will cover procedural issues in bankruptcy cases from the commencement of the case to discharge or plan confirmation. It will include simulation and exercises in practice under the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure. The students will also draft pleadings, discovery requests, orders and judgments in bankruptcy. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or CONSUMER BANKRUPTCY or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS

BANKRUPTCY SALES
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 5020)
1 credit
This course examines the bankruptcy sale process. The course will cover the basic rules governing bankruptcy sales and will explore the motivations of the parties and creative uses of the sale process. Evaluation will be based on an examination, but class participation or a paper may be factored into the final grade. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS..

BANKRUPTCY TAXATION
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 1060)
2 credits
This course will examine the tax aspects of bankruptcy practice. Taxation is a major aspect of many bankruptcy cases and an emerging sub-specialty in the bankruptcy field. The course will consider such areas as the post-confirmation carry forward of losses, and tax planning for entities in financial difficulty. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: TAXATION-BASIC FEDERAL PERSONAL INCOME.

BIOETHICS
(HEALTH LAW - 1010)
3 credits
This course examines various legal aspects and historical foundations in the subject area of medical jurisprudence and bioethics. Students will become involved in the ongoing dialogue on issues of human experimentation, protection of human research subjects, xenotransplantation, organ donor considerations, minorities as research subjects, Federal radiation experiments, as well as other related concerns. The emerging debate surrounding the issues of federal, state and local regulatory initiatives in providing health and medical coverage will be examined. Grades will be based on a final examination.

BREAD AND LIFE: IMMIGRATION CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 8040)
4 credits
Bread and Life: Immigration Clinic is a one-semester clinical program available to second- and third-year day students and to evening students after their third semester if they can work in the clinic during the day.  St. John's Law School is partnering with St. John's Bread and Life to give students the opportunity to engage in "community lawyering" with an immigrant population.  Students will develop skills in interviewing, identifying factual and legal issues, researching, preparing memoranda, working with clients from diverse cultures, and referring clients to appropriate agencies. Students will be exposed to a wide array of immigration-related problems.  Experience will include representing clients in administrative immigration matters before the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services and litigating in removal or deportation proceedings before the immigration courts, the Board of Immigration Appeals or the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.  Grades will be based on demonstration of the skills taught, ability to work with clients and team members, written assignments, and classroom participation, including roundtable discussions where students will present a client's case, identify a particular complex legal, factual or strategic issue, and share ideas.  Students will be required to have office hours and work on their cases 13 hours a week in addition to a two-hour weekly seminar.

BROKER-DEALER REGULATION
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 4010)
2 credits
Business Organizations is a pre- or co-requisite for this course. This course will focus on the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as it pertains to the regulation of brokerage firms and brokers. The course will examine how brokerage firms are created and subsequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. The course will further examine a brokerage firm's obligations to its customers and potential liability for violations of those obligations. Lastly, the course will touch upon the dispute resolution process of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority as it relates to customer claims. Grading will be based 80% on a final examination, and 20% on three exercises during the semester, each of which will require an oral presentation in class, and one or more of which may include writings.  Pre-requisite or Co-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 1080)
2 credits
The course will examine the reorganization of financially distressed enterprises under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code and the theoretical and economic underpinnings of reorganization. The course will consider all aspects of Chapter 11 from filing to confirmation of a plan of reorganization, conversion or dismissal. The following topics will be covered: good faith; venue; retention and compensation of professionals; the extent of the court's equitable powers; use, sale and lease of the debtor's property; successor liability; post-petition financing. 

BUSINESS BASICS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW – 4060)
1 credit
Students often come to law school with little training or background in business.  This course will introduce students to fundamental accounting, economic, and finance concepts that they need to know in order to advise their clients effectively in a wide variety of practice areas.  Topics include: accounting and financial statements; the time value of money; valuation; equity, debt, and other financial instruments; and the capital markets.  This course involves basic mathematics, but is specifically designed for students with no background in business, finance, or economics.  It is open only to students who have taken no prior courses in accounting or finance, i.e., a single prior undergraduate or post-graduate course in accounting or finance renders a student ineligible.  Grades will be based on daily problem sets and a final examination.

BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 3000)
4 credits
This course is intended to familiarize students with the nature of business entities. The course begins with a review of Agency Law. Partnerships, limited partnerships and joint ventures are then examined against the background of the Uniform Partnership and Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Acts. In the examination of corporations, attention is given to the problems of forming and financing the corporation, the federal securities laws and the distinctions between publicly held and closely held firms. Considerable stress is placed on the rights of shareholders and the authority and obligations of directors and officers of a corporation. Consideration is also given to shareholders derivative actions and to the problems involved in the dissolution and combination of corporations. Grades are based upon a final examination.

BUSINESS PLANNING
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 1060)
3 credits
This course is designed to coordinate several areas of business-related law previously studied and to sensitize students to the constant practical interplay of these business-related areas of the law. Students will be assisted in verbalizing and drafting responses to the problems encountered by employing materials and documents which provide the framework for the practical application of previous legal training to commercial topics. Significant emphasis is placed on out-of-class drafting of and solutions to legal-business problems. Grades are based upon class performance and short written assignments.  Pre-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS and TAX BASIC FED PERSONAL INCOME

CANON LAW
(CANON LAW - 1000)
2 creditsThis course introduces the student to the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. In addition to an examination of the historical and theoretical foundations of canon law, the course examines certain foundational concepts of the Code of Canon Law as promulgated in 1983. The course examines the general norms for canon law (Book I, canons 1-203), and the juridical structure of the Catholic Church (Book II, canons 204-572), and, in particular, the marriage laws of the Catholic Church (Book IV, canons 1055-1165). Designed for students familiar with the common-law tradition, the course adheres to a comparative methodology, stressing areas of Church law throughout the Code of Canon Law that intersect with American law (e.g., incorporation and tax exemption, conveyance of property, marriage norms). Grades are based upon a final examination.

CHILD ADVOCACY CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 5090)
4 credits
The Child Advocacy Clinic is a one-semester in-house, live- client, multi-disciplinary clinical program available to second and third year students and evening students after their third semester if they can work in the clinic during the day. The Clinic addresses the needs of children who have been abused and neglected and affords the students the opportunity to develop essential lawyering skills, practical legal knowledge and professional responsibility while serving the Queens community. Students in the Clinic will be assigned to represent children in child abuse and neglect cases in Queens County Family Court. Allegations in these cases include parental drug and alcohol abuse, educational neglect, excessive corporal punishment, domestic violence, inadequate guardianship, parental mental illness, etc. Students provide representation from arraignment through final resolution of the case. Students working with mental health consultants will engage in all professional responsibilities and aspects of representation, such as interviewing, fact investigation, preparation of all legal papers, working with experts, trial preparation, negotiation, field work and trials. The Clinical Professor supervises students in all aspects of  
client representation and litigation. Students are required to work in the Clinic 13 hours a week. Additionally, students are required to attend a weekly 2-hour seminar component. The seminar will provide the opportunity for students to learn and develop essential lawyering skills required in client representation, learn substantive areas of law, and participate in roundtable discussions. Students will be selected based upon an interview with the professor and submission of a resume, cover letter, and unofficial transcript.

CHILDREN AND THE LAW SEMINAR
(INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS - 1090)
2 credits
This seminar examines the legal status, rights, and obligations and the allocation of power among the child, the family, and the state in contemporary society. Topics covered include the right to education, parental choice and public school curriculum, the speech rights of minors, reproductive decision-making, medical care, the unique concerns of infancy and adolescence, child abuse and neglect, and the termination of parental rights. The approach used weaves case law together with legal and cross-disciplinary readings that underscore the connections among doctrine, policy, and data. While the focus is on the United States, supplementary materials including the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child encourage students to place the issues in national and global perspective. The final grade is based on class participation, problem-based assignments, and preparation and presentation of a final research paper of substantial scholarly merit, minimum 30 pages in length including notes.  Pre-requisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

CIVIL PROCEDURE
(CIVIL PROCEDURE - 1000)
4 credits
This first year course is concerned with the statutory and judicially established procedures governing the conduct of civil litigation in the courts, with an emphasis on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The course examines in depth principles of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, pleadings, joinder of parties (including class actions), motions, summary judgment, discovery and the doctrine of preclusion. Grades are based upon a final examination.

COLLOQUIUM IN LAW
(CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - 2010)
2 credits
This seminar invites faculty from outside St. John's to present scholarship around a general theme chosen by the instructor(s). Students will be required to write short "reflection papers" (1500 words each) analyzing the scholarship presented, to discuss these reflection papers in class, and to participate in exchanges with the visiting scholars. Grades will be based on students' reflection papers (70%), class participation (15%), and interaction with the visiting scholars (15%). Enrollment will be based on interviews with the instructor(s) and limited to 16 students. The instructor(s) will make enrollment decisions on the basis of students' academic credentials, demonstrated interest in legal scholarship, and career plans and opportunities.

COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 3010)
2 credits
This course focuses on arbitration as a means of resolving disputes. Topics include construction and enforcement of agreements to arbitrate, the federal and New York statutory schemes governing arbitration, the possible preemption of the state law of arbitration by its federal counterpart, the legal enforceability of arbitral awards, and policy restrictions on the arbitrability of certain types of claims. Emphasis is placed on arbitration outside the highly specialized labor area. Discussion extends to practice as well as theory. Assigned reading is fairly extensive. Grades are based upon a final examination.

COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE LEASING
(PROPERTY - 2010)
2 credits
This course introduces students to the negotiation, drafting and interpretation of commercial real estate leases.  Topics include: letters of intent, term, permitted use, assignment and subleasing, rent, alterations, maintenance, building services, regulatory compliance, options, brokers, casualty, insurance, indemnities, subordination, defaults and remedies.  The course will also address ancillary lease documentation such as non-disturbance agreements, estoppel certificates and guaranties; certain tax consequences of commercial leasing; and ethical issues that arise in commercial leasing practice.  Special attention will be paid to New York State and City laws impacting commercial leases.  Students will gain an understanding of the key negotiating points in a commercial lease, the interests of the parties in relation to those points, and the process of negotiation which results in lease documentation memorializing these interests.  Grades will be based on a final examination.  Prerequisite:  Property.

COMPARATIVE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
(INTERNAT'L AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 5060)
2 credits
This course will involve a comparative study of criminal justice systems, with a focus on varying approaches to investigation and adjudication of criminal cases in inquisitorial, adversarial, and hybrid systems.  While U.S. law will be used as a basis of comparison, the focus of the course will be on the criminal procedure systems used in other countries. Topics will include the role of the victim, police, prosecutor, and judge; search and seizure; interrogation; confrontation; admissibility of evidence; plea bargaining; and burden of proof. Since the focus of this course is comparative analysis, prior study of U.S. criminal procedure is not necessary.  Grades will be based on a final examination and class participation.

COMPARATIVE EQUALITY SEMINAR
(INTERNAT'L AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 4070)
2 credits
This seminar will examine the globalization of equality and anti-discrimination principles as they have become embedded in mature, recent, and nascent democracies around the world. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, it will address the flux of these developments over recent decades, positioning those changes in their particular social, cultural, and historical contexts. While U.S. law will be used as a base of comparison, the focus will be on approaches to addressing structural inequalities emerging from the European Union and its member states, South Africa, Canada, Asia, and Latin America. Topics covered include differing conceptualizations of the equality ideal, the question of proving inequality, employment discrimination, affirmative action, marriage and reproduction, freedom of expression, religious freedom and secularism, and hate speech. During the full academic year, grades will be based on class participation, a substantial research paper, and presentation of the research paper in class. In the summer abroad program, grades will be based on class participation and a final exam.  Prerequisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

COMPARATIVE LAW
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 2000)
2 credits
In the globalized market for legal services, American lawyers must be able to communicate intelligibly with colleagues trained in foreign law—in arbitration, litigation, transactional work, even matters of professional responsibility. Comparative law, the study of how different legal systems address analogous problems, is thus crucial. In this introductory course, we will study the method and uses of comparative law generally and then move to selected topics in civil procedure, contracts, and professional responsibility. We will focus principally on two legal traditions, Anglo-American common law and the European civil tradition, which obtains in much of Latin America and Asia as well. We will also spend time on customary and religious legal systems, such as canon law and Islamic fiqh. Grades will be based on a final exam.

COMPARATIVE LEGAL SYSTEMS
(INTERNAT'L AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 4050)
1 credit
This course provides selected second-, third-, and fourth-year students the opportunity and experience first-hand foreign legal systems throughout the world. With a different legal system (country or region) designated annually by the Dean, this one-week travel / study course presents students the opportunity to gain substantial and comparative law knowledge across the great variety of common law, civil law, and mixed legal systems worldwide. The course includes pre-departure lectures at St. John's, guest lectures by law professors, judges and practicing lawyers in the designated country, as well as historical "walking lectures". The travel portion will include stays in selected cities in the jurisdiction as well as study visits to academic, governmental and legal institutions. Grading will be based on two written essays, one to be completed before departure and one due upon return to St. John's.

COMPLEX BANKRUPTCY LITIGATION SEMINAR
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 2020)
2 credits
This course will examine fraudulent conveyances; equitable subordination; substantive consolidation; preferences; confirmation of reorganization plans; and civil RICO, lender, and CERCLA liability. The course will also include issues such as expense management and budgeting; conflicts of interest; and other ethical considerations. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS.

COMPLEX LITIGATION
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 1080)
3 credits
The course will provide in-depth coverage of modern multiparty, multidistrict litigation in the federal courts, including class actions, discovery practice, including the scope of discovery, an analysis of electronic discovery as well as individual discovery methods and their relative strengths and weaknesses, work product and privilege, and sanctions for abuse and non-compliance.  The course will also examine res judicata and collateral estoppel, sanctions, equitable and provisional remedies, motions to dismiss, summary judgment, extraordinary writs, awards of attorneys' fees, the right to jury trial, and the Manual for Complex Litigation.  Grades are based upon a final examination.

CONDOMINIUMS, COOPERATIVES & HOMEOWNER ASSOCIATIONS 
(PROPERTY - 1000)
2 credits
This course examines modern forms of shelter from the viewpoint of the community, the developer, the institutional lender and the consumer. The relative advantages of each form of development, the legal problems involved in selling and re-selling individual units, and the controls that may be exercised over unit owners are examined. The economic, social and legal aspects of conversion of rental properties to cooperative or condominium status are discussed. Rights and remedies in the event of defaults by unit owners/developers are also considered. Students will work with applicable statutes, governmental regulations and documents of existing projects. Grades are based upon a research paper.

CONFLICT OF LAWS
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 1000)
3 credits
This course studies the resolution of problems that arise when legal matters have a relationship to more than one state or nation. Topics covered include the circumstances under which courts will adjudicate disputes, the recognition of judicial decrees by other states, and the criteria for determining the substantive law applicable to multistate transactions. The role played by the United States Constitution in limiting state freedom of action in this area is also examined. Grades are based upon a final examination.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I
(CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - 1040)
2 credits
This course examines broad themes of constitutional structure, separation of powers, and federalism and lays the foundation for addressing constitutional rights.  Topics covered include the scope and limits of judicial review, commerce clause powers and constraints on the states, taxing and spending powers, privileges and immunities, preemption doctrine, state autonomy, executive authority in domestic and foreign affairs, incorporation theory, congressional enforcement of constitutional rights, and state action.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW II 
(CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – 1050)
3 credits
This course examines the protection of individual rights with an emphasis on the First and Fourteenth Amendments.  Topics covered include procedural and substantive due process; the development of equal protection doctrine regarding race, alienage, age, non-marital children, sex, and sexual orientation, as well as fundamental rights; and various aspects of freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and church-state separation.  Pre-requisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I

CONSTITUTIONAL THEORY
(CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - 1020)
2 credits
This course examines the fundamental legal theories supporting the constitutional system in the United States. Selected readings from the Federalist Papers round the course. Current legal scholarship in constitutional theory provides satellite readings to explicate further the basic principles of the Constitution. Grades are based upon a series of related essays on themes in constitutional theory.
Prerequisite or Corequisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I AND II

CONSTRUCTION LAW
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 4050)
2 credits
This course is designed to provide students with a working knowledge of the field of construction law, beginning with the parties to a typical construction project, the types of contracts used, the competitive bidding process, labor law issues, and the resolution of disputes, with a concentration on issues related to construction in New York State and City. The students will review a standard construction contract published by the American Institute of Architects, participate in a mock mediation of a construction dispute, review and complete NYC Vendex Questionnaires required of all NYC municipal contractors, and review and complete a notice of mechanic's lien. The objective will be to provide the students with the ability to advise clients working in the construction field in reviewing contracts, participating in the competitive bidding process, handling disputes and labor issues, and filing claims for public and private works projects. Grades will be based on a final examination and class participation.  Prerequisite: CONTRACTS I AND CONTRACTS II

CONSUMER BANKRUPTCY
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 1070)
2 credits
This course will examine Chapter 7 and 13 of the Bankruptcy Code, including the principles of the fresh start and equality of distribution; the roles of the case trustee and United States Trustee; good faith and substantial abuse; the automatic stay; property of the estate; discharge, challenges to discharge and dischargeability; rights to convert and dismiss; and the preparation and presentation of contested matters and adversary proceedings. Grades are based upon a final examination. (The credit hours decision will be in advance each semester and clearly disclosed in the registration packet and schedule). 

CONSUMER JUSTICE FOR THE ELDERLY: LITIGATION CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 2010)
4 credits
The Consumer Justice for the Elderly: Litigation Clinic is a one-semester in-house clinical program and is available to second and third-year students and evening students after their third semester if they can work in the clinic during the day. The Clinic addresses the legal needs of Queens' senior citizens and affords students the opportunity to develop essential lawyering skills, practical legal knowledge and professional responsibility while serving the community. Students represent clients in the areas of consumer law (focusing on consumer frauds and scams, including predatory lending), debtor-creditor law and benefit entitlements, such as social security disability, supplemental security income, Medicaid and pension benefits. Clinical Professors supervise students in all aspects of client representation. Students provide representation from the initial client contact through the final resolution of their case. Accordingly, students perform client and witness interviews; perform legal research; draft all pleadings including complaints, answers, motions and briefs; conduct discovery proceedings, including depositions; argue motions; represent clients at administrative hearings and at court hearings and trials; and represent clients at settlement negotiations and draft settlement agreements. Students are required to work in the Clinic 13 hours a week (20 hours a week during summer program). There is also a weekly 2-hour seminar component.

CONSUMER PROTECTION
(INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS - 1020)
3 credits
This course explores the laws governing a variety of oppressive practices merchants engage in, including unfair and deceptive advertising, bait and switch transactions, and referral sales. The course also examines the law governing credit cards and other consumer credit transactions, including credit reporting, credit discrimination, abusive collection practices, and usury. Also covered are cooling off periods, debit cards, the cutting off of consumer claims and defenses, and how consumers can assert their rights. The course covers the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Consumer Credit Protection Act (including the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Electronic Fund Transfers Act, the Truth in Lending Act, and the Fair Credit Billing Act), the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, and various New York State statutes. Grades are based upon a final examination.

CONTEMPORARY CRIMINAL JUSTICE SEMINAR
(CRIMINAL LAW - 1090)
2 credits
This seminar addresses today's pressing issues in criminal justice. It deliberates over the social and political implications of our criminal law policies. Specific topics will vary from year to year, but are likely to include some from the following list: (1) criminal law in family matters; (2) crimes of vice including the controversial war on drugs, the movement against drunk driving, drug treatment courts, etc.; (3) the challenge of pluralism including hate crimes and the culture defense; (4) community criminal justice policies and theory; (5) overcriminalization and many others. There will also be a comparative law component. Grades will be based on a research paper, in class participation and a short reflection paper. N.B. Students taking this course are not permitted to take the three- credit Advanced Criminal Law course.  Pre-requisite: CRIMINAL LAW

CONTRACTS I
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 1090)
3 credits
This course deals with the formation, avoidance and discharge of contract obligations. Attention is also directed to the remedies available for breach of contract and the rules for ascertaining the damages recoverable. The course provides in-depth analysis of both common law principles and relevant provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code.  Grades are based upon a final examination.

CONTRACTS II
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 2000)
2 credits
This course deals with the formation, avoidance and discharge of contract obligations. Attention is also directed to the remedies available for breach of contract and the rules for ascertaining the damages recoverable. The course provides in-depth analysis of both common law principles and relevant provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code.  Grades are based upon a final examination.

COPYRIGHT LAW
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 1010)
3 credits
This course provides a detailed study of copyright law. We will explore topics such as the nature and determination of authorship and ownership; the types of work protected; the scope of protection; infringement; fair use; remedies; and issues raised by digital creation and Internet uses. Focusing primarily on U.S. law, and also on the international dimensions of copyright and related rights, we will discuss the historical development and purposes of copyright law and policy, and we will consider whether and how those purposes are being served in the digital age. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: INTRODUCTION TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

CORPORATE FINANCE
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 2010)
3 credits
This course consists of a detailed study of legal, business, economic, corporate and accounting aspects of valuation of the firm and of securities, capital structure, issuance and reacquisition of various types of securities (including new financial instruments and financing techniques), dividend policy, interplay with financial markets, the use and legal regulation of commodity and financial futures, options and markets (subject to time), and related issues in contemporary corporate finance. The course culminates in a study of similar aspects and techniques of mergers and acquisitions. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE SEMINAR
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 2060)
2 credits
This seminar is designed to allow students an opportunity to explore corporate law-related topics of their choosing in depth. The course will initially be spent introducing and studying selected topics in corporate law not covered in the basic Business Organizations classes. The topics covered will include: Theories of the Corporation, including Classical, Contractarian and Social Responsibility Theories; The Role of Corporations in Society; The Concept of Limited Liability; Fiduciary Duties of Officers and Directors, including the cases of Mergers and Acquisitions; Dividend and Voting Conflicts with Shareholders and Self-Interested Transactions; The Changing Role and Rights of Debt; Proxy Rule Reform; The Corporate Governance Movement; Institutional Investors; the A.L.I. Corporate Governance Project; the Role and Duties of Corporate Attorneys; and others. The class will be conducted as a seminar in which students will present, defend and receive comments from their fellow students on their papers. This course is intended to complement but not to overlap the separate electives in Corporate Finance and Securities Regulation.  Pre-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

COUNTERTERRORISM LAW
(CRIMINAL LAW - 2030)
3 credits
This course focuses on the law enforcement responses to international and domestic terrorism. Topics will include the use of informants and cooperating witnesses, immigration enforcement, surveillance, interrogation, detention issues, the use of military commissions, and the USA PATRIOT Act. Grades will be based on class participation and a final exam. Students are encouraged, though not required to complete Criminal Procedure: Investigation prior to enrolling in Counterterrorism Law.

CREDITORS' RIGHTS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 4080)
3 credits
This course deals with proceedings to enforce judgments, problems with respect to fraudulent conveyances, alternatives to bankruptcy, and a complete analysis of the Bankruptcy Code. Grades are based upon a final examination.

CRIMINAL DEFENSE CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 8070/8080)
8 credits: 4 in Fall, 4 in Spring
This course is limited to students who are selected after a screening and interview process. Selected students must commit to the course for the full academic year. Students will be placed at an indigent defense organization where they will represent clients in misdemeanor and violation cases under the supervision of an experienced attorney. Students will practice pursuant to an approved student practice order which permits students to arraign cases, interview clients, write, file and argue motions, conduct case investigations and represent clients in all court appearances. Students will also participate in a weekly two-hour seminar. Topics will include relevant skills training, theory and practice as well as New York substantive and procedural criminal law. It is strongly suggested that students wishing to be considered for the Criminal Defense Clinic have already taken Evidence and Trial Advocacy. However, students who agree to enroll in Evidence and Trial Advocacy (civil or criminal) at the same time they are taking the Criminal Defense Clinic will also be considered. Grades will be based on student performance at the placement site and in the clinic seminar.  Pre-requisite: CRIMINAL LAW.  CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: INVESTIGATION is a co-requisite course to be taken during Part I of the clinic.  Students must take either TRIAL ADVOCACY or EVIDENCE as a co-requisite course during either Part I or Part II of the clinic.

CRIMINAL LAW
(CRIMINAL LAW - 1010)
3 credits
An introductory study of the law of crimes and the administration of criminal justice, including general principles of criminal liability and defenses. Topics considered include the criminal act and mental elements in crime, causation, mistake, excuse and justification defenses, the law of homicide and the inchoate offenses such as attempt and solicitation. These topics are examined under the common-law, the Model Penal Code and the New York Penal Law to give the student a historical as well as modern perspective on the criminal law and its objectives. Grades are based upon a final examination.

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: ADJUDICATION
(CRIMINAL LAW - 1060)
2 credits
This course covers procedure from arraignment to trial, including bail, preliminary examination, grand jury procedure, immunity, discovery, motions to dismiss, double jeopardy, the right to confront witnesses, and guilty pleas. Cases are discussed under the New York Criminal Procedure Law and the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. Grades are based upon a final examination.  

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: INVESTIGATION
(CRIMINAL LAW - 1050)
3 credits
This course studies federal constitutional and state law restrictions on police investigative practices. Specific topics include stops, arrests and other seizures; frisks and other searches; interrogations and confessions; and the operation of exclusionary rules. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: CRIMINAL LAW

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: SENTENCING/POST CONVICTION
(CRIMINAL LAW - 1070)
3 credits
This course covers what happens in a criminal case after a conviction. Starting from a general examination of the philosophical justifications for punishment, the course will then explore in detail the indeterminate sentencing scheme used in New York and the guidelines sentencing scheme used in the federal courts. Other sentencing topics include alternatives to incarceration, the re-emergence of the death penalty, and the influence of race on sentencing. The course will also examine post-conviction relief, with particular focus on the writ of habeas corpus. Grades are based upon a final examination, several short writing assignments, and class participation. N.B. Students taking this course are not permitted to take the two-credit Sentencing Seminar.

DEPOSITION PRACTICE
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 2085)
2 credits
Depositions are critical to pre-trial litigation.  The discovery process culminates in the deposition phase.  Most cases are lost, won, or settled because of information gleaned at a deposition, including how a witness might perform at trial.  Deposition testimony may lead to the resolution of a case through summary judgment or at least, limit the issues for trial.  Attorneys may modify trial strategies after depositions.  Because depositions play such an important role in litigation, the majority of junior litigation attorneys can expect to deal with depositions in some manner from the very start of their careers.  This experiential, interactive course will introduce students to deposition practice.  It is a five-day intensive intersession course which will meet for 4-1/2 to 6 hours each day (final schedule will be posted in the registration materials.)  Using a simulated case file, a textbook and in-class exercises, students will learn and develop deposition skills. Students can expect to: understand the rules, goals, and uses of depositions, prepare for a deposition, develop case theory, formulate questions for a deposition, learn effective techniques for obtaining helpful testimony and minimizing damaging testimony, practice objections, and use documents.  Students will perform in-class exercises and observe and critique their fellow students' deposition skills.  The course will culminate in a four-hour deposition in which students will be paired with an opposing attorney to depose an opposing witness and defend his/her own witnesses.  The professor will supply witnesses.  Grades will be based on class participation and preparedness (25%),  four written pieces (Notice of Deposition, Question Formation Practice, Deposition Outline, Self-Evaluation of Mock Deposition) (25%) and a final mock deposition (50%).

DIRECTED RESEARCH
(DIRECTED RESEARCH - 1000)
2 credits
The course in Directed Research is designed to afford students the opportunity to prepare a major research paper of publishable quality under the direction of a faculty adviser who has expertise in a particular area of the law. Students are responsible for obtaining the sponsorship of a faculty member prior to registering for the course. Students must complete an "Approval of Directed Research" form with the signatures of the faculty adviser and the Associate Dean to be submitted to the Registrar prior to the end of the semester drop/add period. Academic credit will be awarded only if the student has successfully completed all requirements by the end of the student's penultimate semester at the Law School. Completion of requirements means that the student shall have produced a final writing of at least 8000 words in length (approximately thirty pages), inclusive of footnotes, that, except for the minimum grade, satisfies the guidelines in place at the time of registration and shall have prepared a detailed outline and have satisfied any other preparatory steps required by the instructor.  Pre-requisite: LEGAL WRITING II.  As with any course, Directed Research may be taken only once in a student’s academic program.

DISPUTE SYSTEMS DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 3055
2 credits 
In today's practice of law, lawyers are increasingly being asked by their clients to be organizational problem solvers.  As organizational problem solvers, lawyers are finding that clients are turning to them for guidance about how to manage disputes within their organizations and how to create systems that minimize their re-occurrence.  Therefore, whether lawyers are employed as lawyers in a legal firm, in-house counsel, management in a nonprofit, or as policy advocates, lawyers need to understand dispute system design.  This interactive course will educate students about the design and process skills needed to be organizational problem solvers.  Students will learn to assess the effectiveness of existing dispute systems, and then learn to apply those skills in targeted contexts.  The course will be divided among three main segments: I. understanding the dispute system design framework and its components; II. evaluating the integrity and efficacy of existing design systems; and III. applying the framework to design a targeted dispute resolution system. Grades will be based on the quality of class participation (25%), written evaluation of an assigned dispute system design (20%), oral presentation of a proposed design modification or innovation (20%) and the incorporation of these suggestions in a ten-page written summary of the proposed dispute system design (35%).  Pre-/Co-requisite – Lawyering

DOMESTIC RELATIONS IN BANKRUPTCY
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 2030)
2 credits
This course will examine issues such as the enforceability and dischargeability of antenuptial, divorce, and separation agreements; maintenance and support obligations; and other pre-bankruptcy consensual arrangements including the rights and obligations of spouses of persons in bankruptcy. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or FAMILY LAW or CONSUMER BANKRUPTCY.

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE LITIGATION CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 4010/4030)
8 credits: 4 in Fall, 4 in Spring
St. John's University School of Law is partnering with the New York Legal Assistance Group (NYLAG) to provide students with an exciting, well-supervised, hands-on clinical experience. Clinic students, working in pairs, represent clients in family offense and visitation matters in the Queens and Manhattan family courts. Students have the opportunity to handle cases from inception to final disposition, including conducting client interviews, seeking orders of protection, negotiating settlements, making all court appearances, and, where indicated, taking the case to trial. Clinic students enroll in the domestic violence clinic placement and in a two-credit seminar component which meets at the law school. The seminar provides clinic students with substantive knowledge in aspects of family, matrimonial, immigration, and criminal law relevant to the practice portion of the course. In addition, students will be introduced to the integration of law and psychology specific to intimate violence and participate in skills classes in interviewing, safety planning, case preparation, evidence gathering, legal writing, trial advocacy and negotiation skills. This two-semester course maximizes each student's opportunity to fully service each client while maintaining continuous client representation on sensitive legal matters. Students spend approximately 12 - 15 hours a week in court or preparing their cases at the NYLAG clinic office. Students will be chosen based upon an interview with the professor. Evidence and a trial advocacy course are pre- or co-requisite courses and interested students are strongly urged to take Family Law and Family Violence and Sexual Assault.  Pre-requisite or Co-requisite: EVIDENCE

DRAFTING: ADR DOCUMENTS
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 9050)
2 credits
This interactive seminar is designed to teach students the skills to draft the documents necessary to inform clients about ADR alternatives, to draft effective alternate dispute resolution provisions in commercial contracts, and to draft understandable enforceable settlement agreements for successfully mediated matters or negotiated settlements. Students will be required to draft arbitration and mediation clauses, client memos, and settlement agreements. The course will also address post-dispute mediation and arbitration agreements. Work product will be critiqued by the instructor and by fellow students. Students also will have the opportunity to discuss their drafts with practicing professionals. Although the course is designed to be applicable to all types of contracts, there will be a focus on matters relating to the media industry. Grades will be based on a series of assigned papers, a final presentation, and class participation.

DRAFTING: BANKRUPTCY & COMMERCIAL AGREEMENTS
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 2040)
2 credits
This practice-oriented course will examine how to draft documents such as agreements pertaining to cash collateral, loans, asset purchases, disclosure statements, reorganization plans and post-petition loans. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS.

DRAFTING: CONTRACTS
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 8000)
2 credits
This course provides intensive instruction in the drafting of contemporary commercial contracts. Students learn how to translate a business deal into contract concepts, how to structure the agreement, and how to draft contract provisions clearly, precisely, and efficiently. Written exercises are assigned for each class; in addition, students draft a full-length agreement and redraft the agreement following a critique. Some negotiation is included. Grades will be based on several short drafting assignments (totaling 30%), an initial and a revised draft of a contract (totaling 55%); and class participation (15%). N.B. Students taking this course are not permitted to take Professor Boyle's Drafting: Litigation Documents & Contracts.

DRAFTING: FEDERAL CIVIL PRACTICE
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 3020)
3 credits
This course is the federal analogue of Civil Practice Seminar-State. The course is designed to give students experience in drafting the legal papers necessary to prosecute a civil action in federal court, including pleadings, amended pleadings, discovery requests, dispositive and non-dispositive motions, post-trial motions, and appellate papers. Assignments will be developed through hypothetical case files and will vary from time to time. Grades are based upon written submissions, oral presentations and class participation.

DRAFTING: FEDERAL CRIMINAL PRACTICE
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 8030)
2 credits
This course is intended to expose students to the investigative process and to develop the students' ability to write affidavits, charging documents (complaints and indictments), motions (suppression and sentencing), memoranda, and other writings in a "paper" prosecution. Students, as a group, will be required to interview the investigating special agent and the defendant, as well as review the case file for pertinent case information. Students will be expected to utilize legal research, required readings, and information provided by witnesses and the case files to prepare the writing assignments. The course will utilize an evolving fact pattern during the semester, and students will assume the role of either prosecutor or defense attorney for several assignments. Students will have one week to return assignments, though with respect to some assignments students will submit drafts prior to submitting the students' final work product. Additionally, it is expected that when preparing responses, the students will respond to earlier submissions of the students' peers. The final grade will be based cumulatively upon class participation and written assignments, with more complicated assignments carrying greater weight.  Students may find Criminal Procedure: Investigation and/or Criminal Procedure: Adjudication to be helpful preparation but are not required pre-requisites.  Pre-requisite: LEGAL WRITING II and CRIMINAL LAW

DRAFTING: IP LICENSES
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 2020)
3 credits
Pre-requisite - Introduction to Intellectual Property; students may also wish to consider taking Copyright, Trademark, or Patent Law either prior to or simultaneously with enrollment in this course. License agreements are the primary tool employed in the commercial use and exploitation of intellectual property. Licenses provide the vehicle for owners of copyrights, patents, trademarks, rights of publicity, and trade secrets to generate revenue from their property and monetize their interests in such intangibles. For students interested in practicing in IP-driven areas of law (i.e., copyright, trademark, patent, entertainment, arts, sports, publishing, biotech, pharma, etc.), this course will provide the advanced-level skills of analyzing and drafting documents used to transfer, lend, securitize and otherwise exploit the key elements of intellectual property that underlie these areas of law. Grades will be based on a combination of a final examination and two writing assignments. This class will satisfy the Advanced Practice Writing Requirement.  Pre-requisite: INTRODUCTION TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

DRAFTING: LITIGATION DOCUMENTS & CONTRACTS
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 2050)
3 credits
This course is designed to expose students to the various types of Legal Writing and Legal Drafting encountered in law practice. Students will negotiate and draft various types of contracts and will receive intensified instruction in the researching and written discussion of complex legal issues. Students will also receive instruction on preparation of litigation papers and written advocacy. There will be approximately eight written assignments, but no term paper or final examination. N.B. Students who take Professor Boyle's section of the course are not permitted to take the two-credit Drafting: Contracts course.

DRAFTING: NEW YORK CIVIL PRACTICE
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 2050)
2 credits
In addition to drafting the papers necessary in the prosecution or defense of a civil action or proceeding in the New York State Courts, students will learn how to utilize the Civil Practice Law and Rules and related practice acts in hypothetical situations. While the specific subjects addressed in the course may vary from time to time, they are likely to include the drafting and amendment of pleadings; pre-trial, trial and post-trial motion practice; deposition workshops; the role of Article 78 proceedings; appellate court procedure, and the like. Grades are based upon written submissions, oral presentations, and classroom participation.

DRAFTING: PRACTICE DOCUMENTS FOR LL.M. 
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 3015)
1 - 2 credits
This course, designed for internationally-trained law students, will teach students how to draft documents related to general law practice in the United States, such as memoranda, motions, and contracts. In this course students will learn to interpret, evaluate and create documents related to several practice areas, such as criminal practice, tort litigation, and real estate transactions. Students will also learn how to translate case file content and doctrinal law into concepts for drafting original documents. The course will focus on relating doctrinal concepts and fundamental writing skills to writing for practice. Grades will be based on several written assignments.

DRAFTING: REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
(PROPERTY - 1050)
3 credits
This course is a transaction-oriented course dealing with modern real estate problems. The major work product is a series of drafted agreements. Before undertaking actual drafting, students analyze a hypothetical transaction on an integrated functional basis. This involves primarily the interplay of Property, Partnership, Corporation and Tax rules, and how to use them to achieve maximum objectives. Pertinent background reading is assigned in connection with each transaction. Preliminary analysis leads to particular structuring or restructuring of a transaction and provides the basis for the drafting of the appropriate instruments. Grades are based upon class assignments and a final examination.

DRAFTING: TRADEMARK PROSECUTION
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 2030)
2 credits
This course will provide the skills to review a trademark search report, file an application, and prosecute a trademark application through registration. Students will develop familiarity with the trademark prosecution process and procedures relevant to practice before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and Trademark Trial and Appeal Board. Grades will be based upon a combination of eight short writing assignments and class participation. This class will satisfy the Advanced Practice Writing Requirement.  Pre-requisite: INTRODUCTION TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

DRAFTING: TRANSNATIONAL CIVIL LITIGATION
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS -3035)
2 credits
This course teaches students the lawyering skills they need to effectively practice law in today's globalized market. The course covers a number of practical lawyering skills, including predictive and persuasive writing, interviewing, counseling, and negotiation in the context of transnational civil litigation in U.S. courts. Thus, all of the in-class exercises and graded assignments will focus on transnational civil litigation and will require the students to consider cross-cultural issues and other multi-faceted concerns. The problems will involve discrete issues in civil litigation, particularly in the areas of procedure and evidence. Grades will be based on a number of research and writing assignments, class simulations, and class participation.  Foreign LLM students, upon the recommendation of the relevant LLM Program Director, are eligible to take the course without satisfaction of the prescribed prerequisites upon consultation with the professor teaching the course and assuming space is available.  Pre-requisites - LEGAL WRITING I, LEGAL WRITING II, AND LAWYERING.

DRAFTING: WILLS & TRUST INSTRUMENTS
(TRUSTS AND ESTATES - 1000)
2 credits
This course is designed to develop practical skills in the drafting of wills, trusts and other instruments involved in donative transfer as well as an understanding of the goals and limitations of the drafting process itself. The importance of client counseling as a means of insuring maximum tax efficiency is stressed as well as the range of legal tools available to the drafter in addressing a variety of human situations. Topics to be included are pecuniary legacies, legacies of tangible personal property, devises of specific realty, residuary bequests, will substitutes, intervivos trusts, and gifts on condition. Grades are based upon a final examination and graded drafting assignments.  Pre-requisite: TRUSTS AND ESTATES

ECONOMIC JUSTICE CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 9010/9020)
8 credits: 4 in Fall, 4 in Spring
The Economic Justice Clinic is a two-semester clinical program available to second and third year law students and evening students after their third semester if they can work in the clinic during the day. St. John's University is partnering with New York Legal Assistance Group ("NYLAG") to give students the opportunity to learn the basics of economic justice and the law, including how to address the needs of low income, disabled, and homeless New Yorkers attempting to navigate the social safety net. Students will be taught basic legal advocacy skills, substantive areas of public benefits law (formerly known as "poverty law" practice), and how to assist individuals obtain and maintain their public benefits (including food stamps, public assistance, Medicaid, housing subsidies, and others). Skills taught will include how to represent public benefits recipients at due process hearings and challenging adverse agency actions discontinuing, reducing or denying them these benefits. Students will have a wide variety of opportunities to interact with the economic justice community in New York City, and will represent clients at fair hearings under the supervision of an attorney in the public benefits practice at NYLAG, a major legal services provider organization. They will also learn how to provide pro se assistance and legal information to clients at a legal help desk in the central fair hearing center for New York City alongside seasoned welfare advocates and benefits lawyers from Project FAIR, a coalition of legal services and social service organizations. Seminar classes will be held at both NYLAG and St. John's. The grade will be based upon the student's overall performance in the clinic.

EDUCATION LAW SEMINAR
(EDUCATION LAW - 1000)
2 credits
This seminar examines the interaction of courts, the legislature, and administrative agencies in setting educational policy and enforcing legal rights under federal and New York State Law. Emphasis is placed on the civil rights and civil liberties of students and teachers as well as on the limitations of legal institutions in solving complex social and educational problems. Areas to be explored include tenure, certification issues, employment and labor relations, academic freedom, church state issues, censorship, compulsory education, rights of disabled students, student discipline, discrimination and school finance reform. Students present their papers to the class. Grades are based upon class participation, a research paper and in-class presentation of the paper.

ELDER LAW
(TRUSTS AND ESTATES – 1080)
2 credits
As the population ages, Elder Law is an increasingly important part of American jurisprudence.  This course will examine the law as it relates to the elderly.  It will cover the ethics implicated in representing an elderly client, advance directives (powers of attorney, living wills and health care proxies), Mental Hygiene Law Article 81 guardianships, Medicaid and Medicare, trusts (including special needs trusts), Veteran’s Benefits, Social Security, fair hearings and several miscellaneous topics.  Grades will be based on a final examination.  Pre-requisite: TRUSTS & ESTATES.

E-DISCOVERY
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 3050)
(2 credits)
This course examines the area of litigation known as E-Discovery.  More than 90% of information is now created in electronic form.  Electronically stored information (“ESI”), which includes email, word documents, spreadsheets, social media information, and various database applications, has created a rapidly growing area of law.  This course will cover electronic document retention policies; the preservation, collection, review and production of electronic evidence during the course of pre-trial litigation; and privilege waiver, privacy, spoliation, and evidentiary admissibility issues.  The 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and an array of local and state rules that have emerged in response to these issues have brought Electronic Discovery to the forefront of litigation practice.   This course will review federal and New York e-discovery case law.  Students will gain an in-depth understanding of the legal issues affecting ESI and the best practices for attorneys working with such information.   Grades will be based on an in-class midterm consisting of a simulated discovery conference with a writing assignment component, and a final examination.
Pre-Requisite: CIVIL PROCEDURE

EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 1020)
3 credits
This course studies the federal, state, and local laws and executive orders prohibiting employment discrimination with focus on problems of proof, and remedies for violation. Grades are based upon an examination.

EMPLOYMENT LAW
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 1010)
2 credits
This course concentrates on employment-related rights and benefits not covered in the basic and advanced labor law courses. Areas of analysis include state and federal statutory schemes for disabling injuries and diseases (Workers Compensation and Social Security Disability Benefits), workers safety and health (OSHA), and pensions (ERISA and Social Security Retirement Benefits). Employment-at-will is also explored. The coordinating themes throughout the course are the historical and the theoretical bases for employment-related social legislation and an ongoing inquiry into the fundamental nature of employment itself. Grades are based upon a final examination.

ENTERTAINMENT LAW
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 1020)
2 credits
This course will explore the protection and exploitation of generally intangible literary, musical and artistic property through a thorough analysis of the legal framework of the entertainment industries. Using basic doctrines of contract, copyright and labor law, the course will show how an entertainment concept is developed, copied, distributed and protected from unauthorized duplication. Antitrust, tax and other commercial questions will be treated. Sample agreements will be analyzed. Grades are based upon a research paper.

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
(ENVIRONMENTAL LAW - 1000)
3 credits
This course covers the legal responses to current environmental problems, including climate change, air and water quality, toxic substances, solid and hazardous waste and the preservation of parks, wetlands and the habitats of endangered species. The course starts with the common law of nuisance and the public trust doctrine, foundations of the current law.  It then traces the development of federal and state environmental statutes and the administrative law that governs agencies implementing these statutes’ provisions.  Grades are based upon a final examination.

ESTATE ADMINISTRATION
(TRUSTS AND ESTATES - 1010)
2 credits
This course is intended to give the student a practical knowledge of the Surrogate's Court Procedure Act and such related statutes as affect recurring problems in the administration of decedents' estates, with specific reference to the probate of wills, the issuance of letters testamentary, letters of administration and letters of temporary administration, collection of estate assets, payment of expenses and debts, general investment power of fiduciaries, allocation of trust funds between trust principal and trust income, apportionment of estate taxes, compensation of fiduciaries and attorneys, and ultimate distribution and accounting. The object of the course is to provide the fundamental working knowledge pre-requisite to the legal representation of estate fiduciaries. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite or Co-requisite: TRUSTS AND ESTATES

ESTATE ADMINISTRATION - LITIGATION
(TRUSTS AND ESTATES - 1020)
2 credits
This course examines litigation in complex will contests (with or without juries); will construction litigation; settlement negotiations; proper procedures in probate, tax, and estate accounting; the handling of charitable and other dispositions in trusts; the approach to appellate practice in estates, trusts, and related matters. Grades are based upon a research paper.  Pre-requisite or co-requisite: TRUSTS AND ESTATES

ESTATE PLANNING
(TRUSTS AND ESTATES - 1030)
2 credits
This course uses assigned problems to explore tax and other factors to be considered in intervivos and testamentary dispositions to transfer accumulated wealth, including traditional assets and non-testamentary assets such as employee benefits and insurance. Federal estate and gift tax law, some elder law and the substantive law of trusts and estates are integrated into the syllabus. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite or co-requisite: TRUSTS AND ESTATES

EVIDENCE
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 2090)
4 credits
This course studies the rules of evidence that govern judicial proceedings in federal and state courts. Subjects covered include relevance, real and demonstrative evidence, judicial notice, burdens of proof, presumptions, competency of witnesses, examination of witnesses, character evidence and related problems, the hearsay rule and its exceptions, opinion evidence, expert witnesses, foundation and authentication, the best evidence rule, and privileges. Grades are based upon a final examination.

EVIDENCE: FORENSIC DNA
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 3040)
2 credits
This course is designed to provide students with the fundamental knowledge necessary to handle cases in which forensic DNA evidence is in issue. The course will familiarize the student with the various terms associated with forensic DNA analysis. The program addresses the legal principles controlling the proper evaluation and presentation of DNA evidence, and the scientific and statistical principles underlying forensic DNA analysis. It examines basic principles of biology, population genetics, and statistics as they apply to forensic DNA analysis, as well as specific evidentiary foundations and techniques for presenting DNA evidence in a trial. It also examines legal challenges to the underlying scientific principles and statistical analysis of DNA evidence, together with legal strategies to effectively address these challenges. The student's grade will be based upon a final exam and class participation.

EXECUTORY CONTRACTS IN BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 5050)
1 credit
This course examines the treatment of executory contracts in bankruptcy. The course will cover the basic rules governing assumption, rejection and assumption and assignment, and the course will explore the motivations of the parties. Evaluation will be based on an examination, but class participation may be factored into the final grade. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS.

EXTERNSHIP PLACEMENT
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 2015)
2 credits
Students work 140 hours in pre-approved externship placements (168 hours during the summer semester) under the guidance of carefully selected mentor attorneys.  It is expected that students will be integrated into all aspects of the legal setting, assist the mentor-attorneys in their day-to-day legal activities, and receive research, writing and other legal assignments.  The course is graded on a pass-fail basis.  Co-requisite: EXTERNSHIP SEMINAR, EXTERNSHIP SEMINAR–ADVANCED, or SUMMER EXTERNSHIP SEMINAR.

EXTERNSHIP SEMINAR
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 2025)
2 credits
This 2-credit seminar is required when a student is taking an Externship Placement for the first time during the fall or spring semesters.  The students will be required to submit time sheets and a written reflection on their work at the placement.  The first thirty minutes or so of each class will be devoted to the students’ reflections.  That discussion will include ethics, confidentiality, workplace environment (including collaboration) and professionalism.  The balance of the course will cover lawyering skills, including fact investigation and evaluation; interviewing and counseling; writing letters and emails; writing a 2000-word research paper (approximately 8 pages) of the type that would appear in a practice-oriented bar journal; and oral skills, such as presenting work to the mentor-attorney or judge, discussing the pros and cons of a case, orally synthesizing the law and the facts to tell an effective story, speaking assertively, communicating effectively to clients, and presenting the research paper.  
Grading method:
30%: 8-page practice-oriented paper
15%: oral presentation on paper
15%: interviewing, counseling and fact-investigation exercises
20%: practice-writing assignments
15%: MPT
5%: class participation
Co-requisite: EXTERNSHIP PLACEMENT.
 
EXTERNSHIP SEMINAR – ADVANCED
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 2035)
1 credit
This 1-credit seminar is required for students enrolled in an Externship Placement in the fall or spring who have previously taken the two-credit Externship Seminar, and for students enrolled in the Externship Placement in the summer who have already taken the Summer Externship Seminar.  It will meet for seven weeks, two hours per class (every other week during the 14-week semester, and every week during the summer semester).  The student will be required to keep time sheets and a written reflection on their work at the placement.  The first thirty minutes or so of each class will be devoted to the students’ reflections.  That discussion will include advanced issues of ethics, confidentiality, workplace environment (including collaboration) and professionalism.  The balance of the course will focus on advanced lawyering skills, including fact investigation and evaluation; interviewing and counseling; writing letters and emails; writing a 1000-word research paper (approximately 4 pages) of the type that would appear in a practice-oriented bar journal; and oral skills, such as presenting work to the mentor-attorney or judge, discussing the pros and cons of a case, orally synthesizing the law and the facts to tell an effective story, speaking assertively, communicating effectively to clients, and presenting the research paper.
Grading method:
35%: 4 page practice-oriented paper
20%: practice-writing assignments
20%: interviewing, counseling and fact-investigation exercises
20%: MPT
5%: class participation
Mandatory: Time sheets with reflections
Co-requisite: EXTERNSHIP PLACEMENT

FACT-WRITING & PERSUASIVE LEGAL DOCUMENTS
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 7080)
2 credits
This course provides advanced instruction on how to deliver the client's story to a court in complaints, affidavits, and statements of the case. Students will learn narrative structure theory, and will work with case files and records to develop the storylines necessary to support legal claims and defenses. Grades will be based on classroom writing exercises, and first drafts and rewrites of three legal documents.

FAMILY LAW
(FAMILY LAW - 1000)
3 credits
This course explores the nature of marriage and the family as legal institutions. Beginning with the establishment of a family unit through either ceremonial or common-law marriage, the course considers the legal relationship among various members of the family, and examines the problems arising on disruption of the family unit through separation, annulment, or divorce. Grades are based upon a final examination.

FAMILY VIOLENCE & SEXUAL ASSAULT
(CRIMINAL LAW - 1030)
2 credits
This course will survey the legal issues involved with domestic violence, child abuse and sexual assault cases. The course will focus on such issues as the battered women's syndrome, child abuse prosecutions, shaken baby syndrome, date rape and forcible rape. The course will be taught through lectures, videotapes, guest speakers and interactive mock trial of an actual child abuse rape case. Grades are based upon class participation, a mock-trial exercise and a final examination.

FASHION LAW
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 3000)
2 credits
This course is an overview of the legal aspects of the multi-trillion dollar international fashion industry that includes garments and accessories, make-up and fragrances, from production to consumption.  The course will cover the intellectual property, employment, commercial, and contractual aspects of the fashion industry.  Grades will be based on written and oral in-class exercises and a final examination.   Prerequisite: Introduction to Intellectual Property. 

FEDERAL COURTS
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 1070)
3 credits
This course focuses on the federal judicial system, concentrating on the bases, scope, and limitations of jurisdiction in the United States District Courts, the United States Courts of Appeal, and the United States Supreme Court. The course deals with the distribution of power among the federal courts and the other branches of the federal government and between the federal government and the states. The course will also examine the substantive law to be applied in federal courts and conflicts arising between state and federal courts. A portion of the course deals with some of the same concepts and topics dealt with in Civil Procedure, Constitutional Law and Conflicts of Law, but approaches them from the perspective of the federal judicial system. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: CIVIL PROCEDURE

FEDERAL CRIMINAL LAW
(CRIMINAL LAW – 2050)
2 credits
This course explores substantive federal criminal law, including the constitutional authority for and limitations on the creation of federal crimes.  Among the topics addressed are robbery, extortion, narcotics, money laundering, firearms offenses, and RICO.  Grades will be based on final examination.  Pre-requisite: Criminal Law

FIRST AMENDMENT: FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION 
(CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - 2060)
3 credits
This course provides an overview of the subset of First Amendment Law pertaining to principles of freedom of expression. Topics may include: the history and theory of free expression, categories of unprotected speech, limits on government regulation of expression and expressive conduct, freedom of the press, freedom of expressive association, regulation of political campaigns, and regulation of communications media. Grades will be based on a final examination. Prerequisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

FIRST AMENDMENT: RELIGION CLAUSES
(CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - 1070)
2 credits
This seminar explores the interaction of law and religion in American society. It traces the history of American religious liberty and explores the continuing evolution of the Supreme Court's Establishment and Free Exercise Clause jurisprudence. Among the topics discussed are: state financial assistance to religion; restrictions on religious speech; religious displays on public property; religion in the public schools; the autonomy of religious communities; and state accommodation of religious practices. Grades l shall be based on a substantial research paper, an in-class presentation, and class participation. Students who take this course may not also take Law and Religion Seminar: Comparative and International Perspectives (Constitutional Law - 1090).  Prerequisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

FOUNDATIONS OF AMERICAN LAW & ANALYSIS
(LEGAL METHOD - 2050)
3 credits
This course introduces methods and ideas that are fundamental components of the American legal system, placed within the context of the American political and business and commercial systems. The course specifically emphasizes case law analysis, statutory interpretation, and written and oral communication skills. This class is graded Pass/Fail. A passing grade requires regular attendance and satisfactory completion of a series of analytical writing assignments.

GLOBAL LAW FELLOWS RESEARCH COLLOQUIUM TUTORIAL
(DIRECTED RESEARCH - 1070)
1 credit
This colloquium is designed to provide an academic peer group for visiting foreign researchers participating in the Global Law Fellows program, specialized instruction in American and English language materials, and an opportunity for Global Fellows to share progress of their research. In addition to regular presentations by the Global Fellows on their research projects, the colloquium will include instruction in use of electronic search services, structure of U.S. reporters and other standard legal materials, proper citation, U.S. law journal publication standards, and other research-related subjects. Each Global Law Fellow will give a substantial presentation on his or her research project during the course of the semester. If, in any given semester, there is only one Global Fellow, this course will be administered as a tutorial. This is a pass/fail course.

HEALTH CARE FRAUD
(HEALTH LAW – 1050)
2 credits
This course will examine the rise of health care fraud as a national law enforcement priority and the legal framework for health care fraud enforcement activities in the United States.  The course will examine: (a) the different types and special characteristics of health care fraud as a species of white collar crime; (b) the prevailing criminal, civil and administrative health care fraud enforcement regimes; (c) key health care fraud and abuse laws, and the penalties associated with violations; (d) the importance of implementing compliance programs at health care organizations; and (e) current trends in health care fraud enforcement as well as the factors influencing prosecutorial discretion.  Grades will be based on a final examination and class participation.  Pre-requisite: CRIMINAL LAW

HEALTH LAW
(HEALTH LAW - 1000)
2 credits
This course will examine the legal structure of health care delivery in the United States and how it affects the issue of access to quality health care. The course will be divided into two components: 1) introduction to the basics of health care delivery and financing, and 2) the legal ethics of rationing access. Because the course will focus upon the legal issues connected to constraints on access to health care, in addition to serving as an introduction to Health Law, the course will also address the current legal debates concerning the demands on health care of the elderly. Grades are based upon a research paper.

IMMIGRATION LAW
(INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS - 1030)
3 credits
This course deals in general with the legal and administrative problems encountered by aliens who have emigrated lawfully and unlawfully to the United States. The course is significantly topical in light of the rapidly increasing number of unauthorized aliens present in the United States. Basic to the course is a study of federal administrative law as it relates to the problems of the immigrant, but issues of constitutional law, criminal law, domestic relations and commercial law are also treated insofar as they pertain to immigration and nationality law. Grades are based upon a final examination and class participation.

INFORMATION PRIVACY LAW SEMINAR
(TORTS - 1070)
2 credits
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. Today, modern technology has altered both what people expect in their privacy and the enforcement of those expectations. Accordingly, privacy considerations and compliance are a near constant challenge for individuals, corporations, and the lawyers who serve them. This course walks students through the theoretical ideologies around privacy and then the practical implications of those theories in light of various privacy problems in order to introduce students to the concepts and frameworks typically used in addressing questions of liability, compliance, and best practices. This includes privacy torts and First Amendment issues that arise from them; privacy in law enforcement; privacy in national security; consumer privacy; and  significant statutes, regulations, and common law principles that make up this emerging legal framework, including the Federal Wiretap Act, Patriot Act, and the General Data Protection Act (GDPR). Grades will be based on a final examination and class participation.

IN-HOUSE COUNSEL: LAW & PRACTICE
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE – 4040)
2 credits
This course will explore the practice of law from the perspective of in-house counsel.  It will cover the legal and practical issues typically encountered by in-house counsel with an emphasis on the significant role that risk assessment, judgment and communication style play in the in-house practice, culminating with an event in which each student will be required to prepare and make a simulated Board presentation.  Pre-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

INSURANCE LAW
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 2030)
2 credits
The purpose of this course is to familiarize the student with the fundamental legal principles of life, property, accident and health, and liability insurance. Special attention is given to sections of the New York Insurance Law relating to standard policy clauses and forms. The selected cases afford a complete common-law coverage and such basic insurance concepts as insurable interest, warranty, waiver, estoppel, notice and proof of loss and the scope and effect of the insurance contract. Grades are based upon a final examination.

INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW SCHOLARLY RESEARCH & WRITING
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 5040)
2 credits
This course guides students through the process of completing a substantial scholarly research and writing project in an international or comparative law topic.  Grades will be based on a number of assignments, including a preliminary outline and thesis, annotate outline, oral presentation, peer critique, and first and final drafts of the research paper.  Prerequisites:  INTL & FOREIGN LEGAL RESEARCH. It is strongly recommended that students have completed or take concurrently either International Law or Comparative Law.

INTERNATIONAL ART & CULTURAL HERITAGE LAW
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 2060)
2 credits
International Art and Cultural Heritage Law provides students with knowledge about the field of international art and cultural heritage law. While focusing on the practical and legal aspects of the international art world, the student will also be introduced to public international law and private international law, including fundamentals of international business transactions, admiralty law and intellectual property law particularly copyright. Grades will be based on class participation and a final.

INTERNATIONAL ART & CULTURAL HERITAGE LAW-SA
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 2065)
1 credit
International Art and Cultural Heritage Law provides students with knowledge about the field of international art and cultural heritage law. While focusing on the practical and legal aspects of the international art world, the student will also be introduced to public international law and private international law, including fundamentals of international business transactions, and intellectual property law.  This version of the course pays special attention to issues in European and Italian art and cultural heritage law. Grades will be based on class participation and a final examination.  Students who take this course may not take the 2-credit International Art & Cultural Heritage Law course.

INTERNATIONAL BANKRUPTCY
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 5070)
2 credits
This course covers all aspects of international bankruptcy. The comparative insolvency law component of the course will cover the major bankruptcy systems used around the world. Then students will study how those systems interact in the component devoted to managing cross-border cases. Finally the course will review the European Union regulation on cross-border insolvency and the use of the U.S. Chapter 11 procedure by foreign companies. The course will be taught by a variety of guest lecturers from around the world who are leading experts on these topics. The lectures will be offered in real-time interactive audio/video format. In addition, a St. John's professor will be on-site to supervise each session and answer questions students may have. Evaluation will be based on an examination. Class participation may be factored into the final grade. Recommended co-requisite: Business Bankruptcy Reorganizations is a recommended pre- or co-requisite.

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS LAW ADVANCED TOPICS:
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 5010)
1 credit
This is an advanced topics course in the study of cross-border business transactions.  Topics of this course may include project development, cross-border mergers and acquisitions, global corporate compliance, cross-border employment law, international competition (antitrust) law, and cross-border IP licensing.  It is anticipated that students will be required to write research papers (for JD students these may satisfy the Advanced Scholarly Writing Requirement (ASWR). Prerequisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATION  Corequisite: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES - 1020)
3 credits
This course is designed to introduce the student to some of the major legal issues that arise in doing business across national boundaries. Among the topics to be considered are the international sale of goods and services, foreign investment, technology transfer, national, regional and international regulation of international trade, extraterritoriality, the European Union, and doing business in developing countries. Grades are based upon a final examination and class participation.

INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES - 6070)

2 credits
Arbitration is an increasingly important component of international commerce. This course will cover several aspects of international commercial arbitration, including the advantages and disadvantages of arbitration; the question of arbitrability; the appointment of arbitrators and the potential for conflicts of  
interest; the choice of law to govern the arbitration; the presentation of the case; and the enforcement of arbitral awards. Throughout, we will assess whether we are witnessing the emergence of a new, stateless regime for the resolution of international commercial disputes. Grades are based upon a final examination.

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES - 2030)
2 credits
This course covers jurisdiction in international law, extradition and its legal and constitutional bases, the nature of international crimes in customary international law, including genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and torture. This course will also consider the proposed international Criminal Court and the Rome Statute of 1998. Grades are based upon a final exam.

INTERNATIONAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION ADVANCED TOPICS
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 5020)
1 Credit
This is an advanced topics course in the study of international dispute resolution.  Topics of this course may include mediation of armed conflict, peace processes, investment-state arbitration, dispute settlement in international organizations, and the settlement of territorial disputes.  It is anticipated that students will be required to write research papers (for JD students these may satisfy the Advanced Scholarly Writing Requirement (ASWR)).

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES - 1030)
3 credits
This course surveys the leading legal instruments and approaches to dealing with regional and global environmental problems. It will address transboundary air and water pollution, mass catastrophes, protection and allocation of freshwater supplies, stewardship of ocean resources such as fisheries, protection of the atmosphere (including the ozone layer and climate change), transport and trade in hazardous chemicals and waste, and biodiversity. The course will explore the environmental side of new approaches to economic regulation, including the world trade regime, and emerging ideas about sustainable development. Grades are based upon a final examination.

INTERNATIONAL FINANCE
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES - 4090)
3 credits
This course provides a survey of major themes in international finance in relation to common cross-border deals such as corporate mergers and acquisitions and project financings.  Students will learn about different methods of financing such international deals, the regulatory issues involved, and the techniques to assess, allocate, and address related risks.  Grades will be based on a deal analysis memorandum (20%) and on a final examination (80%).  Prerequisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATION

INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS ADVANCED TOPICS:
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 5000)
3 credits
This is an advanced topics course in the study of International Human Rights law.  Topics of this course may include human rights theory, human rights and development, environmental rights, regional human rights courts and commissions, women's rights, children's rights and disability under international human rights.  It is anticipated that students will be required to write research papers (for JD students these may satisfy the Advanced Scholarly Writing Requirement (ASWR)).

INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES - 2010)
3 credits
This course represents a survey of international human rights law and teaches how international organizations, regional organizations, states and non-state actors define and enforce human rights. Beginning with the historical origins of human rights, the course will examine the international and regional human rights instruments and institutions that form the sources of human rights law (the UN system, including the Charter and treaties, European, African and Inter-American human rights regimes, and customary international law). It will also examine the role of non-governmental organizations, international criminal tribunals (including the International Criminal Court) and international humanitarian law (the law of war), and the interaction between U.S. law and international human rights. Throughout the course, students will be introduced to important critical themes of human rights, including: the distinction between public and private acts, evolving theories of statehood, sovereign immunity, and cultural relativism and the western tradition of individual rights. Issues examined may include: political participation and democratization, religious freedom, the use of torture, corporate liability, women's rights, children's rights, the rights and status of refugees, economic and social rights, genocide and war crimes. The grade will be based upon either a final exam or a research paper, as determined by the professor. The determination will be communicated to the students in the registration materials.

INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 2070)
3 credits
This course provides an overview of the principles of international protection and enforcement of intellectual property and of the major treaty regimes and institutions that underlie such protection. It will address substantive international law regarding protection of copyright, patent, trademark, and other forms of intellectual property; procedural treaties and agencies designed to facilitate international recognition of intellectual property rights; dispute resolution and choice of law issues. Where appropriate, comparative legal materials from foreign jurisdictions will be introduced. Introduction to Intellectual Property is a pre-requisite for this course. International Law is strongly recommended as a preparation for this course. Grades will be based on a final examination.  Prerequisite: INTRO TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

INTERNATIONAL LAW
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES - 1040)
3 credits
The International Law course surveys that system of jurisprudence dealing with the precepts and principles that govern the community of nations in their mutual dealings as they have developed from early history to modern times. After an analysis of the nature and sources of international law, the course will examine topics such as recognition, succession, territory of states, sovereignty, jurisdiction, extradition, state immunity, international agreements, international claims, human rights and use of force. Grades are based upon a final examination and class participation.

INTERNATIONAL LAW ADVANCED PRACTICE WRITING TUTORIAL
(INTERNATIONAL LAW - 4020)
3 Credits
This writing course, designed to fulfill the J.D. program’s APWR, is taken by students participating in an international practicum.  Students may submit to their on-site Adjunct Professor  inter alia memoranda of law, client letters, aide-mémoires, formal meeting minutes, foreign law summaries, treaty commentaries, case analyses, reports of investigation, trip reports, staff summaries, background papers, or regulatory drafts.  The student will, at the completion of this course, have a comprehensive portfolio of professional writing relevant to the work undertaken throughout their international practicum. This course is graded based upon the quality of submitted written work.  Co-requisites:  INTERNATIONAL LAW PRACTICUM and INTERNATIONAL LAW DIRECTED RESEARCH.  

INTERNATIONAL LAW DIRECTED RESEARCH
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 4010)
3 Credits
This writing course, designed to fulfill the J.D. program’s ASWR, is taken by students participating in an international practicum.  The student, the on-site Adjunct Professor, and a St John’s Professor Liaison will, within 30 days of commencing the practicum, decide upon a research topic both of interest to the student and of value to the host organization.  The research may be undertaken in conjunction with the student’s assigned practicum duties, but the resulting research paper must meet all ASWR requirements and will be evaluated at all stages by the St. John’s Professor Liaison.  Co-requisites: INTERNATIONAL LAW PRACTICUM and INTERNATIONAL LAW ADVANCED-PRACTICE WRITING TUTORIAL.    

INTERNATIONAL LAW PRACTICUM—NATO
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 4000)
7 Credits
This unique practicum provides carefully selected second- and third-year students (and evening students who have completed at least three semesters) the opportunity to gain practice experience in public international law and national security law through work and study at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s Office of Legal Education in Mons, Belgium.  This five month, full time, in-residence practicum exposes students to the daily practice of public international law, including international agreements; international, regional, and national law; the function of staff legal counsel; legal support to defense forces; comparative law challenges; legal education programs; international criminal tribunals; and organizational policies, standards, and procedures.  Students will have the opportunity to work closely with experienced public international law practitioners through day-to-day contact, informal mentoring, and regular tutorial sessions allowing students an opportunity for guided reflection on their work and research with experienced practitioners.  This course is pass/fail.  Because this course is limited to one student each in the fall and spring semesters, permission to enroll in this course will be by application and competitive selection.  Pre-requisites: INTERNATIONAL LAW or NATIONAL SECURITY AND THE LAW.  Co-requisites:  INTERNATIONAL LAW ADVANCED PRACTICE WRITING TUTORIAL and INTERNATIONAL LAW DIRECTED RESEARCH.

INTERNATIONAL LAW PRACTICUM—UN VIENNA
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 4001)
7 credits
This unique practicum provides carefully second- and third-year students (and evening students who have completed at least three semesters) the opportunity to gain practice experience in public international law and specialized international legal practice through work and study at a UN agency headquartered in Vienna, Austria. This semester length, full time, in-residence practicum exposes students to the daily practice of public international law, including international agreements; international, regional, and national law; the function of international organization staff legal counsel; legal support to UN member governments and other UN agencies; comparative law challenges; legal education programs; international administrative and criminal tribunals; and organizational policies, standards, and procedures. Students will have the opportunity to work closely with experienced public international law practitioners through day-to-day contact, informal mentoring, and regular tutorial sessions allowing students an opportunity for guided reflection on their work and research with experienced practitioners. This course is pass/fail. Permission to enroll in this course will be by application and competitive selection at St. John's and by application and acceptance by the UN agency. Prerequisites: International Law and other course(s), as required. Co-requisites: International Law Advanced Practice Writing Tutorial and International Law Directed Research.  Prerequisite: INTERNATIONAL LAW. Co-requisites:  INTERNATIONAL LAW ADVANCED PRACTICE WRITING TUTORIAL and INTERNATIONAL LAW DIRECTED RESEARCH.

INTERNATIONAL & FOREIGN LEGAL RESEARCH
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 8050)
2 credits
This course teaches the tools and resources of international & foreign legal research.  Students will primarily focus on international legal research, including research related to public international law & human rights, international dispute resolution & litigation, and cross-border transactions and international business consulting.  Students will learn some techniques of comparative legal research and will closely examine certain primary sources of international law.  Grades will be based on three assignments, an in-class presentation, and participation.  Students are strongly encouraged to take International Law concurrently.

INTERNATIONAL LITIGATION & DISPUTE RESOLUTION
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES - 2020)
3 credits
This course will explore selected procedural issues affecting foreign litigants in the United States, U.S. citizens litigating in foreign jurisdictions, and special problems which arise in multi-party complex litigation. There will be an emphasis on comparative law analysis, and course materials will include relevant U.S. and foreign statutes, treaties and conventions. The topics which will be examined include jurisdictional issues involving foreign nationals, service of process abroad, discovery abroad, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the United States, and of United States judgments abroad, and different approaches to multi-party and representative litigation. In addition, comparative approaches to payment of litigation costs and attorneys' fees and court-annexed dispute resolution will also be considered. Grades are based upon a final examination. N.B. Students who take this course are not permitted to take the two-credit International Litigation Seminar.  Pre-requisite: CIVIL PROCEDURE

INTERNATIONAL LITIGATION IN U.S. COURTS - SUMMER ABROAD
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 5030)
2 credits
The course will explore selected procedural issues arising out of transnational transactions and events that are litigated in U.S. courts.  The topics that will be examined include jurisdictional issues involving foreign nationals; service of process abroad; discovery abroad; recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the United States, and of United States judgments abroad; forum non conveniens dismissals; and parallel proceedings.  Because of the overlap between this course and “International Litigation & Dispute Resolution,” students who take one of these courses may not also take the other. Grades will be based on a final examination.

INTERNATIONAL TAXATION
(TAXATION - 1050)
3 credits
This course will survey the U.S. income taxation of nonresident alien individuals and foreign corporations involved in business transactions and investment activities in the United States, as well as on the U.S. income taxation of domestic corporations and U.S. citizens with foreign income producing activities. As part of the discussion of these topics, coverage will address the taxation of U.S. shareholders of controlled foreign corporations; the role of the foreign tax credit for U.S. citizens and domestic corporations; the role of the withholding tax applicable to nonresident individuals and foreign corporations; the branch profits tax; special status foreign corporations, such as passive foreign investment companies; transfer pricing; and the role of tax treaties. Class discussion will also include basic federal corporate tax concepts when important to the understanding of these topics. Grades are based upon a research paper.  Prerequisite: TAX BASIC FED PERSONAL INCOME

INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES – 2070)
3 credits
This course examines the laws, institutions, and policies governing international trade in goods and services, focusing on the World Trade Organization and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, preferential trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement, and U.S. laws regulating trade.  Topics include the institutions and processes of trade policy-making, negotiations, and dispute settlement; tariffs and market access; non-discrimination; antidumping and countervailing (anti-subsidy) measures; technical barriers to trade; litigation before the Court of International Trade; investment protection within trade agreements; trade-related aspects of intellectual property; trade and development; and the relationship of trade rules to “non-trade” issues such as public health, food safety, environmental protection, and labor standards.  Grades will be based on four legal memoranda (90%) and class participation (10%).

INTERNET LAW
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 1090)
2 credits
An introduction to the legal and policy issues raised by the Internet, computers, and networked technology. This course will explore how the digital networked environment of the Internet alters traditional notions of regulation and jurisdiction, spurs innovation, creates new harms and new solutions, alters social norms, and reshapes the roles and relationships of private and public actors. Topics will include history of the Internet, jurisdiction, free speech, private self-regulation, privacy, intellectual property, e-commerce and the sharing economy, and Internet governance. Grades are based on a final examination.

INTRODUCTION TO ADVOCACY FOR INTERNATIONAL LL.M. 
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 3025)
1 credit
This intensive and interactive course, designed for internationally-trained law students, will introduce practical aspects of representing clients in American law practice. The course will focus on attorney responsibilities in advising clients in either a litigation or transactional context. This course is taught in an intensive format, emphasizing critical thinking exercises, simulations, observations and other experiential learning. This course merges ethical considerations and doctrine with representational skills practice. Students will have the chance to observe and interview practicing attorneys, evaluate a model demonstration, and finally practice client representation skills in an in-class graded exercise.  Grades will be based on quality of in-class participation, written assignment(s) and final skills demonstration.

INTRODUCTION TO BANKRUPTCY PRACTICE: CASE ANALYSIS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 4090)
2 credits
This course, open to second-year day or third-year evening staff members of the ABI Law Review, simulates the working environment of a law firm bankruptcy practice group. Students assume the role of entry-level associates who conduct time-sensitive research and writing assignments on cutting-edge bankruptcy issues. After completing a series of preliminary research and writing assignments under the supervision of the instructor, who will provide feedback and suggestions for revision, students will submit a professional-quality work product to an electronic forum. Each student will monitor the discussion of his or her posting, and update it as necessary. Drawing on the insights offered by bankruptcy practitioners through discussion on the forum, students will thoroughly research the subject of their assigned issue and prepare a first and final draft of a comprehensive office memorandum. The memorandum will be reviewed by both ABI Law Review student editors and the instructor. Their feedback will guide students through the revision process. Evaluation will be based on the quality of the research and writing, as well as participation in writing workshops conducted during the semester. Students using this course to satisfy the Advanced Practice Writing Requirement may not use a paper on the same subject to satisfy the Advanced Scholarly Writing Requirement.

INTRODUCTION TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 2010)
3 credits
Open only to students who have not yet taken Copyright Law, Trademarks and Copyrights Survey, Trademarks and Unfair Competition or Patent Law. This is a survey course in intellectual property law. Students will learn the basic doctrines of the three major federal regimes of intellectual property (copyright, trademarks, and patents), as well as their historical and theoretical foundations. The course is a pre-requisite to further study in intellectual property. Grades will be based on a final examination.

INTRODUCTION TO LAW
(LEGAL METHOD - 1000)
2 credits
This course introduces methods and ideas that are fundamental components of the American legal system, with an emphasis on case law analysis and statutory interpretation. A passing grade requires regular attendance and satisfactory completion of several writing assignments.

INTRODUCTION TO TLP
(TRANSNATIONAL LEGAL PRACTICE – 1050)
1 credit
This course introduces TLP students to methods and ideas that are fundamental components of the American legal system, with an emphasis on case law analysis and statutory interpretation.  A passing grade requires regular attendance and satisfactory completion of several writing assignments.

INTRODUCTION TO U.S. LAW & LAWYERING
(US LEGAL STUDIES FOREIGN LAW GRADUATE - 1000)
3 credits
Introduction to United States law is a course designed for LL.M. students in the Master of Laws program who have received their law degrees from foreign universities. The course provides an overview of various areas of United States law, of the U.S. legal profession, and of the U.S. judicial process. It is an introduction to the common and statutory law of the U.S. federal and state systems of law, designed to develop students' knowledge of United States legal concepts and issues in order to broaden and deepen their understanding of United States law and its process. The course will examine civil procedure, torts, contracts, property, criminal law and constitutional law. It will emphasize areas in which United States law is distinct from that of many other nations, including the federal system, judicial review, rights of those accused of crime, jury trials, punitive damages and constitutional protection of religious freedom. Class attendance is required, and students are expected to be prepared. Grades will be based upon a final exam and class participation.

ISSUES OF RACE & GENDER IN LAW
(INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS - 1050)
2 credits
This course will review Feminist Legal Theory, and Critical Race Theory and their development using recent legal, social and political commentary and case law. Topics studied will include feminist and critical race method, equality, privacy, gender/race-based discrimination, the intersections of race/gender/ethnicity, sexual harassment, hate speech, and pornography. Grades are based upon a research paper.

JUVENILE JUSTICE
(CRIMINAL LAW - 1020)
2 credits
The course explores a wide-range of juvenile justice issues, covering the history of the juvenile court; the due process "revolution" of the 1960's; disparate treatment of children and adults involved in the legal system; and issues in a juvenile delinquency case from intake to disposition. In addressing these topics, principles of adolescent development and youths' special needs as well as disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile system will be examined. The course will also contemplate sociological and psychological theories and recent developments in adolescent brain development. Throughout the course, we will regularly visit the original ideology of the juvenile court and question its rehabilitative ideal. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: CRIMINAL LAW

LABOR & EMPLOYMENT ARBITRATION
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 1050)
2 credits
This course focuses primarily on labor arbitration under collective bargaining agreements, but will also cover arbitration in non-unionized employment settings and arbitration as an alternative to employment discrimination litigation. The course will be roughly divided into three main segments: the legal framework for labor arbitration (and other forms of employment-related arbitration), the procedural and substantive issues in labor arbitration, and the development of effective arbitration advocacy skills. Students will be expected to complete a number of written assignments throughout the semester, including written analysis of diverse grievance provisions and arbitration clauses, and the writing of an arbitration opinion and award. In addition, the students will be expected to prepare, research and participate in a mock arbitration, possibly before outside arbitrators. The professor plans to divide the class into teams with each team having no more than three members. Depending upon the number of students in the class, there may be more than one mock arbitration. Each student will be required to write a final brief. Grades are based upon the interim written assignments, class participation, including performance in a mock arbitration, and the final brief.  Pre-requisite: LABOR LAW or EMPLOYMENT LAW or EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION

LABOR LAW
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 1040)
3 credits
The National Labor Relations Act is emphasized throughout the course. Consideration is given to day-to-day issues in labor-management relations. Union representation, unfair labor practice proceedings, collective bargaining, grievance negotiations and labor arbitration are studied in depth. Grades are based upon a final examination.

LABOR LAW - SPECIAL TOPICS
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 1030)
2 credits
This course will examine more sophisticated material not covered in the basic labor law course, including secondary boycotts, union-community coalitions, federalism and the labor preemption doctrine, and internal union governance. The study of international and comparative labor law developments will be supplemented by public policy considerations of social justice. Grades are based upon the individual student's choice of either a single research paper or a series of shorter memos on specific issues. 

LAND USE PLANNING
(PROPERTY - 1010)
3 credits
This course provides an analysis of the legal and administrative aspects of land use control, and of the problems and techniques of urban planning. The course includes a study of building codes, zoning, subdivision, public acquisition of land tax controls and urban redevelopment. Grades are based upon a research paper of law review quality on a topic approved by the faculty member conducting the seminar.

LAW AND ECONOMICS
(THEORY, HISTORY & STRUCTURE OF LAW - 1050)
2 credits

This course is designed to introduce the student to important economic concepts that have wide applicability to law, including efficiency, cost/benefit analysis, risk analysis and externalities. The course will focus on the application of these concepts to problems in property, torts, contracts, antitrust and class actions. Prior knowledge of economics is neither presumed nor a pre-requisite. Grades are based upon a final examination

LAW AND INTERPRETATION
(THEORY, HISTORY & STRUCTURE OF LAW - 2000)
2 credits
This course uses the freedom of the seminar format to explore judicial opinions that deal with highly contested, charged and complex legal issues. The focus is on the competing values--jurisprudential, social, political, economic, moral, religious, philosophical, personal-- expressly or implicitly contained in a text. In the interpretation of opinions, students will explore the following questions, among others: What is the factual "picture"--the historical, the legal, the social context--of the case being decided?; what does the text "mean," in every sense that can be brought to it?; which values does the author of an opinion use to reach a decision?; does the student agree with the values used by the author, or how they are employed, to reach a decision, and if so, why?; if the student disagrees with the values used by the author, which values would the student use to reach a decision and why are the chosen values better than those used by the author? The final grade will be based on classroom participation and, primarily, on a paper.

LAW AND LITERATURE
(THEORY, HISTORY & STRUCTURE OF LAW - 1040)
2 credits
Students in this course will read works of literature by such authors as Aeschylus, William Shakespeare, Toni Morrison, William Faulkner, Charlotte Bronte and Virginia Woolf to study various topics including the moral and ethical dimensions of law, law's connection to the fate of individuals, and the connections among law, authority and humanity, using principles of traditional, modern and post-modern literary criticism. Short weekly nongraded responses are required. Grades are based upon attendance, participation in class discussions, and either three short papers or one long research paper.

LAW AND MILITARY OPERATIONS
(CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - 2070)
3 credits
This course provides a survey of the domestic, foreign and international law enabling and governing military operations by US and other forces worldwide. The course will cover the constitutional and international law underpinnings of military operations, court-martial and other military disciplinary law and regulation under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, law of armed conflict and rules of engagement, administrative law impacting peacetime and wartime operations, contracting and fiscal law related to supporting military forces, tort claims arising from military activities, and legal support for individual military members, civilian employees and retirees.

LAW AND RELIGION SEMINAR: INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES
(CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - 1090)
3 credits
This seminar will explore the ways in which different legal systems, including the international human rights regime, accommodate the sometimes competing demands of law and religion. After an introduction to the theoretical underpinnings and history of the subject, the course will address two main areas: free exercise of religion (e.g., religious exemptions, proselytism, and religious discrimination) and the separation of state and religion (e.g., religious establishments, the autonomy of religious associations, and public funding). Throughout, we will compare how Western and non-Western countries address these questions and consider the effect of international human-rights norms. Grades will be based on a substantial research paper, an in-class presentation, and class participation. Students who take this course may not also take Law and Religion Seminar (Constitutional Law - 1070).  Pre-requisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

LAW OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 1090)
3 credits
This course provides an introduction to the law and institutions of the European Union. Emphasis is placed on understanding the process of European Union Law in its political and cultural context and aspects of public and private law, as well as addressing the major legal issues which European Law presents to the United States lawyer. The course will consider the following topics: European Union institutional structure and legal system, sources of European Union law, the treaty system as European constitution, role of the European Court of Justice, separation of powers, relationship between European Union and national legal orders, individuals' rights, free movement of goods, persons, services and capital, economic and monetary union, agricultural policy and its reform, competition law, labor law and social policy, environmental law, sex equality law, company law, and European Union international trade relations. Grades are based upon a final examination. N.B. Students who take this course are not permitted to take the two-credit Law of the European Union Seminar course.

LAW THROUGH FILM
(THEORY, HISTORY & STRUCTURE OF LAW - 1070)
2 credits
Film has the power to stimulate debate. This seminar affords an opportunity to explore jurisprudential issues and value systems through a critical examination of the narrative, historical context, and cinematic technique of films. Thus, this seminar explicitly challenges settled assumptions about law and justice. The films and accompanying reading assignments concentrate on three overlapping themes: defining community, apportioning fault, and distributing justice. In particular, the course highlights the lawyer's role as an "insider" with respect to these concerns, and evaluates the benefits and obligations conferred by that status. When offered during the Fall and Spring semesters, grades are based on two short papers, a research paper, presentation of the paper, and participation in class discussion. When offered during an intersession, grades are based on a final exam, discussion pieces, and class participation.

LAWYERING
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 2075)
2 credits
This course introduces students to the basic skills of lawyering, focusing on negotiation and incorporating interviewing, client counseling, and contract drafting.  Taught in an intensive format emphasizing simulations, exercises, and other forms of experiential learning, the course immerses students in both the theoretical bases and the practical application of the skills required for effective, ethical lawyering.  Grades are based on a combination of short examinations on assigned readings, participation in class discussions and exercises, written assignments, and a final examination.

LAWYERING ACROSS BORDERS
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 5050)
1 credit
This course introduces students to the practical skills of lawyering across borders. Students will reflect and discuss challenges related to practicing law in a different country, and will consider and share the differences and similarities among national legal traditions.  Topics for weekly discussion will include identifying special issues in representing clients in a foreign country, identifying obstacles and issues of local law in cross-border cases; roles of attorneys and other legal actors in foreign jurisdictions, developing professional relationships in an international or foreign legal setting; differences and issues of professional conduct and misconduct; and basic foreign legal research strategies.  Students working outside of New York are required to participate synchronously via videoconferencing tools, and should stay cognizant of the time difference.  Students working in New York will be required to attend class sessions in person.  Grades will be based on participation in class discussions and exercises, weekly written reflection assignments, and a final paper.  Co-requisite:  To enroll, students must have a work placement in a country other than their country of citizenship.

LEGAL HISTORY SEMINAR
(THEORY, HISTORY & STRUCTURE OF LAW - 1020)
2 credits
This 2-credit course is offered in topic-specific formats covering important eras, developments and figures in U.S. and international legal history. Each specific course is offered with a fuller title (Legal History Seminar: ______ [specific topic]) and described in detail in the registration materials for the semester in which the course is offered. Grades are based on class participation, regular writings and a final examination. In addition to the 2-credit course, students have the option to write in the next semester, subject to the professor's permission, a 1-credit research paper on a topic growing out of this course. The paper will be graded separately.  Pre-requisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

LEGAL HISTORY SEMINAR: RESEARCH PAPER
(THEORY, HISTORY & STRUCTURE OF LAW - 2020)
1 credit
Students who have completed Legal History may, with the professor's permission, write in the next semester a 1-credit research paper on a topic growing out of a topic in the initial course.  Pre-requisite: LEGAL HISTORY SEMINAR

LEGAL MALPRACTICE
(TORT - 1060)
2 credits
This course deals with the principles, practice and litigation of legal malpractice claims.  The field of legal malpractice focuses on the way attorneys perform their representation of clients.  Attorneys are expected to know the law and to adhere to accepted practice. Consideration is given to the substance of causes of action for malpractice, breach of contract, breach of fiduciary duty and violations of New York Judiciary Law §487.  The concepts of standing, defenses, discovery, the use of experts, malpractice insurance, good practices, the attorney judgment rule, statutes of limitation, continuous representation, and privity will all be explored.  Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre- or co-requisite: PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY.

LEGAL RESEARCH - ADVANCED
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 1040)
2 credits
In first-year Legal Research and Writing, students were introduced to core research materials such as digests, reporters, annotated codes, Shepard's, and various sources of secondary authority. In this course, students will learn how to use these materials more efficiently to research complex legal questions, and be introduced to sophisticated research materials such as loose-leaf services, federal and state administrative materials, specialized reporters, practice and procedure materials, legislative histories, and materials unique to particular practice areas such as tax, securities, banking and international law. At least one unit will be devoted to non-legal research and one to special New York materials. An emphasis will be placed on improving students' Westlaw and Lexis skills, integrating manual with on-line research, and comparing the effectiveness of manual and on-line research in various contexts. Grades are based upon periodic assignments and a research paper. N.B. Students who take this course are not permitted to take Advanced Legal Research and Writing.

LEGAL RESEARCH, ANALYSIS AND WRITING FOR INTERNATIONAL LL.M. - I
(LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING - 1040)
3 credits
LRAW for LLMs I:  The first course in a two-semester sequence, this course teaches foreign-trained LLM students the fundamental tools of U.S. legal research, analysis, and writing.  As part of the course objectives, students will strengthen their ability to analyze and brief cases, analyze and answer hypothetical questions in essay format, locate and understand standard legal research materials (including cases, statutes and administrative materials), and communicate with clients and other audiences in both written and spoken legal English.  Assignments will focus on predictive writing.  Students will be expected to complete all assigned reading, research, and writing work in a timely and professional manner and demonstrate this through effective class participation (25% of the final grade). Written and oral exercises and assignments will also be assigned and graded (75% of the final grade).

LEGAL RESEARCH, ANALYSIS AND WRITING FOR INTERNATIONAL LL.M. - II
(LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING - 1050)
2 credits
LRAW for LLMs II: The second course in a two-semester sequence, this course for foreign-trained LLM students builds on LRAW for LLMs I and provides more advanced training in U.S. legal research, analysis, and writing. Assignments include open-ended legal research and persuasive writing.  Students will be expected to complete all assigned reading, research, and writing work in a timely and professional manner and demonstrate this through effective class participation (25% of the final grade). Written and oral exercises and assignments will also be assigned and graded (75% of the final grade).  Pre-Requisite: LRAW for International LLMs I

LEGAL RESEARCH, ANALYSIS AND WRITING FOR INTERNATIONAL LL.M. - III
(LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING - 1080)
2 credits
This course is intended to develop international LLM. students' ability to write clear, cohesive, well-organized legal English prose. Students will also learn advanced legal research skills, for example how to develop a research plan involving both primary and secondary sources. Students will further develop their ability to closely read and cull relevant information from source materials (such as case files), and to evaluate and edit their own and others' writing. Students will also develop their ability to evaluate and report in writing the strengths and weaknesses of a (civil or criminal) case based on their review of the law and facts. Some focus will be given to refining language and technical components legal writing such as advenced grammar, and citation forms. The final grade is based on class participation, several small assignments, one midterm assignment, and one final assignment, all totaling at least 25 pages. Graded assignments are judged by various criteria, including logical organization, clarity and cohesion of thought, word usage, sentence structure, grammar, spelling, punctuation, and adherence to technical requirements. Grades will be based on successful completion of several writing assignments. Pre-/Co-requisite(s) – Legal Research, Analysis & Writing for International LL.M.s II

LEGAL WRITING I
(LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING - 1030)
2 credits
The first course in a two-semester sequence, this course teaches students legal writing, research and analysis. The course focuses on predictive legal writing. Students prepare several closed-universe, predictive writing assignments, and rewrite at least one assignment based on the professor's feedback. Grades are based primarily on writing assignments.

LEGAL WRITING II
(LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING - 1010)
2 credits
The second course in a two-semester sequence, this course further develops students' writing, analytical, and research skills. The course focuses primarily on persuasive legal writing but may include a further predictive writing assignment. It also introduces students to oral advocacy. Students prepare several open-universe writing assignments and rewrite at least one persuasive writing assignment based on the professor's feedback. Students also conduct an oral argument. Grades are based primarily on writing assignments.

LEGAL WRITING - ADVANCED
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 4090)
2 credits
This course is intended to develop students' ability to write clear, concise, well organized legal prose, to closely read and cull relevant information from source materials (such as case files), and to evaluate and edit their own and others' writing. In addition to required readings, there are numerous writing assignments: weekly ones of about two pages, plus a midterm of about six pages and final of about twelve. Weekly assignments cover a variety of legal documents, including pleadings, contract provisions, office memoranda, briefs, and law review articles. Typically, both the midterm and final assignments are memos from an associate to a partner assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a case based on a review of the file in a civil or criminal matter. The final grade is based on class participation, the written weekly assignments, the midterm assignment, and the final assignment. Graded assignments are judged by various criteria, including clarity of thought, word usage, sentence structure, organization, conciseness, spelling, punctuation and style.

LEGISLATION AND STATUTORY INTERPRETATION
(ADMINISTRATIVE LAW & GOVERNMENT REGULATION - 1060)
3 credits
Statutory law has replaced common law as the principal source of legal rights and obligations in the United States. Most of the "law" that lawyers work with is statutory and almost every field of legal practice involves the construction of statutes. This course will provide students with a fundamental grounding in the legislative process and a systematic understanding of the rules, canons, and presumptions that judges use to interpret statutes. Topics covered will include the relationship between the common law and statutes, the linguistic and substantive canons of statutory construction, the implementation of statutes by administrative agencies, and the role of legislative history in statutory interpretation (how legislators produce it, how lawyers research it, and how courts use it). This course aims to provide practical training in the nuts and bolts of statutory interpretation as well as an understanding of the various theoretical approaches that courts may follow in applying the canons of construction. Students will participate in an ungraded group legislative drafting exercise and complete a few ungraded practical problems at the end of the semester. Grades will be based on a final examination.

LITIGATION IN NEW YORK’S COMMERCIAL DIVISION
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 4000)
2 credits
Students will discuss and analyze practice in the New York Commercial Division. Students will be assigned current Commercial Division court Decisionsand Orders and will write case summaries. Students will also participate in graded simulations and will draft litigation documents, such as motions or complaints. Grades will be based on writing assignments and performance in class simulations. Current members of the Commercial Division Online Law Report who did not previously take the course are given priority for enrollment in this course. All other interested students should submit an application to the professors.

LL.M. THESIS - INTERNATIONAL & COMPARATIVE SPORTS LAW
(DIRECTED RESEARCH - 1060)
3 credits
This Directed Research course is taken by LL.M. students participating in an international and comparative sports law practicum. Students will have the opportunity to engage in advanced scholarly research and writing on a topic directly related to their experiential learning in international and comparative sports law. The outcomes of this course will be that students gain valuable experience in researching and presenting in a scholarly format an issue of interest to them in their chosen field of specialization. In addition, their thesis will become a major component of their portfolio of professional writing in sports law related matters for use in job interviews or for other professional advancement. Admission to this course is mandatory for all students enrolled in the International & Comparative Sports Law LL.M. program. The students, the practicum supervisor and the St. John's faculty advisor will, within 15 days of commencing the practicum, decide upon a final research topic of interest to the student and of value to the host organization. This course is graded based on the quality of submitted written work. All papers must be submitted in English. Enrollment in this course is required in conjunction with the International & Comparative Sports Law LL.M. practicum. Successful completion of the thesis, with a thesis grade no lower than a B-, is required for graduation from the LL.M. program in International & Comparative Sports Law.  Pre-requisites: U.S. SPORTS LAW; INTERNATIONAL & COMPARATIVE SPORTS LAW; DISPUTE RESOLUTION FOR SPORTS; and ADVANCED TOPICS IN INTERNATIONAL & COMPARATIVE SPORTS LAW

LL.M. THESIS-TRANSNATIONAL LEGAL PRACTICE
(DIRECTED RESEARCH - 1050)
2 credits
This directed research course is limited to students enrolled in the Transnational Legal Practice LL.M. program. Students will have the opportunity to engage in advanced scholarly research and writing on a topic directly related to transnational legal practice. If students are completing one of the approved concentrations (public international legal practice, transnational commercial practice, or transnational dispute resolution), their research must be undertaken in a subject directly relevant to their chosen concentration. Students pursuing a self-designed program of study must have their thesis subject approved by their thesis supervisor as consistent with their approved course of study. The outcomes of this course will be that students gain valuable experience in researching and presenting in a scholarly format an issue of interest to them in their chosen field of transnational legal practice. In addition, their thesis will become a major component of their portfolio of professional writing in transnational law-related matters for use in job interviews or for other professional advancement. This course is graded based on the quality of submitted written work. All papers must be submitted in English. To receive credit for the LL.M. thesis, students must submit a paper that is well written, adequately supported by authority and demonstrates analytical ability, and is awarded a grade no lower than a B-. Papers will fulfill the thesis requirement only if they are at least 8,000 words (including footnotes and/or endnotes), their thesis supervisor has commented on a first draft prior to submission of the final product, and the thesis supervisor certifies that the paper satisfies the above criteria.

LYNCHING: LEGAL & DISPUTE RESOLUTION RESPONSES TO VIOLENCE
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 3065)
2 credits
Students will examine the history and causes of lynching in the U.S. between 1861-1950 and analyze how the vestiges of this domestic terrorism continue today in the criminal justice system. Students will also explore how lawyers can use restorative justice principles along with their legal knowledge and other dispute resolution skills to address the societal vestiges of lynching that are inherent in modern-day violence in its many forms.  As part of the seminar, the class will visit the National Memorial for Peace and Justice (the Lynching Museum) in Montgomery, Alabama. Grades will be based on a scholarly research paper (45%); class presentations (25%) and two reflection pieces (30%).

MATRIMONIAL LAW PRACTICE
(FAMILY LAW - 1010)
2 credits
This course will examine practical aspects of matrimonial trial practice, pleadings, motion practice, examinations before trial, tax apects and equitable distribution.  Separation agreements, custody and adoptions will also be studied.  Grades are based upon the papers submitted and the skills demonstrated. Pre-requisite:  FAMILY LAW

MEDIATION: REPRESENTING CLIENTS
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 6060)
3 credits
This intensive, interactive course first introduces students to an overview of mediation theories and practices, and then develops a coherent approach and the essential skills for effective client representation in mediation. The course will examine attorney responsibilities in advising clients about dispute resolution options, in preparing both the case and the client for mediation, in representing clients in the mediation session itself, and in drafting ADR clauses. The course will culminate in the students participating in a mock mediation. Students' final grade will be based on their demonstrated mastery of course material, judged by both required written submissions, quality of mediation representation skills demonstrated in the final mock mediation, and quality of seminar participation. Students are encouraged to take Alternative Dispute Resolution either prior to or concurrently with this course.

MEDICAL MALPRACTICE
(HEALTH LAW - 1040)
2 credits
The first hour of each class is theory; the second development of an actual medical malpractice case. Through the semester the case will proceed from client initial interview to trial verdict. The class will be divided into plaintiffs' attorneys and defense attorneys. Weekly writing will include a retainer agreement, subpoenas, summonses and complaints, affidavits of service, answers, questions for depositions, orders to show cause, interrogatories with cover letters, motions for summary judgment with supporting depositions, and motions to dismiss. Students will view videos of surgical procedures. The final paper will require an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the case and a conclusion on the value of the case. The final exam will cover the substantive law covered in the first hour of each class. This course satisfies the Advanced Practice Writing Requirement. Grading will be based on a final exam (40%), final paper (25%), class participation (10%), and weekly written requirement (25%). Pre-requisite: TORTS

MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 3080)
2 credits
This course examines mergers and acquisitions from both a practical and theoretical perspective. It focuses on principal acquisition methods, transaction structures, corporate and securities laws, fiduciary duties, legal and regulatory concerns, and the underlying financial and economic principles that drive these transactions. This course will also cover current M&A practice and recent developments, as well as significant M&A theory, case law, and history. Students will be responsible for reading all required course materials and for class participation. There will be a final examination at the end of the semester. Grades are based on the final examination (90%) and class participation (10%).  Pre-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

NATIONAL SECURITY AND THE LAW
(CONSTITUTIONAL LAW - 2040)
3 credits
This is a general survey course examining the role of law in protecting U.S. national security from threats posed by state and non-state actors. Policy responses to these threats include homeland security policy, war fighting, counterterrorism, intelligence operations, and law enforcement activities. The course will examine how law and lawyers are involved in defining or regulating these tasks. The course will be organized around four major topics (a) the domestic and international legal regulation of the use of military force; (b) the oversight of intelligence gathering and covert operations; (c) counterterrorism and homeland security; and (d) the regulation of secret information. Grades will be based on written memoranda, class participation in discussions and an in-class simulation, and a final examination. Students are encouraged, though not required, to complete Criminal Procedure: Investigation and/or International Law prior to enrolling in National Security and the Law.

NEGOTIATION (INTENSIVE)
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 8020)
2 credits
The Intensive Negotiation course is a compressed, inter- active course examining the skills, constraints, and dynamics of the negotiation process. Students will explore the theoretical framework for understanding negotiation practice in a variety of contexts, including both the settlement of disputes and the creation of value through bargaining. Legal and ethical constraints on lawyers in negotiation will be considered. Students will apply the concepts learned by participating in simulated exercises involving realistic negotiation situations. Grades are based on a final examination, along with classroom participation, the submission of written work, and performance on the simulations and exercises. A student may take only one of the following: Negotiation, Negotiation (Intensive), or Negotiation (Comprehensive).

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 4050)
1 credit
This course explores recent important developments in the area of business bankruptcy that may not be addressed fully in other courses. The instructor will moderate seven two-hour sessions that will bring to St. John's the foremost experts on the subjects covered. The topics covered by the guest lecturers will vary from year to year. Students will be assigned readings for each class, which will generally include a paper prepared by the lecturer and assigned cases. Evaluation will be based on an examination, but active class participation is required and participation and class exercises may be factored into the final grade. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS.

NEW YORK CIVIL PRACTICE: JURISDICTION AND PLEADING
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 2000)
2 credits
This course covers the initial stages of a civil action in New York courts under the CPLR (Civil Practice Law and Rules) from commencement through the closure of pleadings.  Particular topics include jurisdiction (subject matter and personal), service of process, venue, pleadings and pre-answer motion practice.  This course may be taken independently of New York Civil Practice: Pre-Trial and Post-Trial Procedure, but students are encouraged to take both courses in order to fully prepare for civil litigation practice in New York.  Grades are based on a final examination.

NEW YORK CIVIL PRACTICE: PRE-TRIAL AND POST-TRIAL PROCEDURE
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 2010)
2 credits
This course covers the progression of a civil action in New York courts under the CPLR (Civil Practice Law and Rules) following the closure of pleadings.  Particular topics include discovery, third-party practice, contribution, provisional remedies, post-pleading motion procedure (especially summary judgment and provisional remedies), and brief coverage of appeals, Article 78 proceedings, arbitration and statutes of limitation.  This course may be taken independently of New York Civil Practice: Jurisdiction and Pleading, but students are encouraged to take both courses in order to fully prepare for civil litigation practice in New York.  Grades are based on a final examination

NEW YORK CRIMINAL PRACTICE
(CRIMINAL LAW - 2010)
3 credits
An in-depth study of New York criminal procedure, including police investigation, accusatory instruments, preliminary proceedings in the local criminal court, arraignment, Grand Jury, discovery (including Rosario material), prosecutorial readiness and speedy trial, plea, pretrial motions, trial procedure, sentencing, and direct and collateral attacks on judgments of conviction. Additional topics may include the insanity defense, competency, Youthful Offender treatment, and prosecution of juveniles as adults. Grades will be based on a  final examination and class participation. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Criminal Procedure: Investigation or Criminal Procedure: Adjudication is recommended.  Pre-requisite: CRIMINAL LAW.

NEW YORK LEGAL RESEARCH
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 1065)
1 credits
The goal of this course is for students to learn research strategies to solve practical questions that an attorney researching New York State legal issues would encounter using cost-effective methods. Topics include New York State legislation and legislative history; New York State agencies and administrative/regulatory law; county, city, village and town codes, rules and regulations; and New York State secondary sources. This course is intended to be taught in a condensed format: two hours per week for seven weeks of the semester. Grades will be based on five assigned exercises.

NUREMBERG & ITS LEGACIES IN LAW AND HISTORY
(THEORY, HISTORY & STRUCTURE OF LAW - 2010)
2 credits
This 2-credit course covers developments in international law relating to war, war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity across the 20th century and to the present. The centerpiece of the course is the 1945-46 International Military Tribunal (IMT) proceedings and its judgments at Nuremberg against the principal Nazi war criminals. The course will consider antecedents to Nuremberg, including the Versailles Treaty, Leipzig trials, League of Nations and Kellogg-Briand treaty; the August 1945 London Agreement creating the IMT; Nuremberg itself, including the IMT trial and judgment and the subsequent American trials of German defendants; other national prosecutions arising from World War II; subsequent related developments, such as the Genocide Convention; and contemporary legal responses to war crimes and other human rights violations, including the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rawanda and the International Criminal Court. Grades will be based on class participation and a final examination.

PATENT APPLICATION PREPARATION & PROSECUTION
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 2050)
2 credits
This is a practical course which covers patent application drafting and procedures involved in prosecuting an application in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The structure and content of a patent application as well as the various types of applications will be discussed. Students will learn how to analyze an invention disclosure and draft a patent specification and claims. Typical Patent Office requirements relevant to filing patent applications will be reviewed. In addition, students will prepare a response to an Office Action which requires a critical analysis of patentability issues such as adequate written description, enablement, utility, novelty and non-obviousness of an invention. The effect of decisions made during prosecution on enforceability of patents will be explored. Grades will be based on written assignments, class participation and preparation.  Pre- or Co-requisite: INTRODUCTION TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

PATENT LAW
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 1030)
3 credits
This course covers the major substantive and procedural aspects of patent law, including criteria for patent protection, infringement, defenses, and remedies. Students will examine legal doctrine as well as the patent system's public policy objectives and theoretical foundations. While the focus of this course is United States patent law, we will also address international issues as they arise. This course is designed to be useful both as a solid background for non-patent-specialists and for those planning a career in the field. No technical background is required for this course. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: INTRODUCTION TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

PENSION & EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 1000)
3 credits
This course will study the laws regulating pensions and other benefits provided to employees by private employers, with a primary but not exclusive emphasis on the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Topics covered will include rules designed to prevent forfeiture of pension benefits, fiduciary duties under ERISA regulation of tax-qualified pension plans, the termination insurance program for pension plans, preemption of state law and a variety of issues relating to non-pension welfare benefits plans, such as those providing medical insurance. Grades are based upon short written assignments, class participation, and a final examination.

PERSPECTIVES ON JUSTICE
(INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS – 2060/2070)
3 credits: 2 in Fall, 1 in Spring
This course is open to second year (or third year evening) law students who are staff members of the Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development. Students will engage in discussions and analysis of racial, social and economic justice issues from a legal historical and theoretical perspective. The students will also participate in a series of research and writing workshops and several writing exercises, which will culminate in a note or comprehensive research paper of publishable quality addressing a current legal issue in racial, social, or economic justice. Each student will select a manageable topic addressing a significant legal issue. (If a student is unable to select a topic, s/he will consult with the professors teaching the course on making a selection that is acceptable to the student and the assigned professors.) Students will thoroughly research the topic, prepare comprehensive annotated bibliographies or relevant table of authorities, and prepare at least three drafts of their final paper. Evaluation will be based on the quality of the final paper, earlier drafts of the paper, other writings in the course, and performance in the workshops and exercises. The final grade for both semesters of the course will be posted after the completion of the spring semester

POVERTY LAW SEMINAR
(INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS - 1060)
2 credits
This course will explore legal issues affecting low-income people, how the legal system has responded, and changing ways of effectively advocating on behalf of low-income individuals and communities. Emphasis will be placed on social and economic justice issues, including community development, welfare law, environmental justice, predatory lending and housing issues. Grades are based upon class participation, a research paper, and a short presentation on the research paper topic.

PRE-TRIAL ADVOCACY
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 1000)
3 credits
Using techniques and material developed by the National Institute for Trial Advocacy, this course deals with the preparation of a case for trial from its inception to the pre-trial conference. Topics covered include initial client conference, interviewing witnesses, written and oral discovery preliminary motions and motions in limine. Emphasis is placed on learning by doing through simulated exercises and videotape demonstrations. Grades are based upon litigation exercises.

PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT I (6 Credits) – The New York Court of Appeals’ Pro Bono Scholars Program allows selected students to sit for the bar exam in their final semester and then undertake 12 weeks of full-time pro bono service at an eligible, approved clinic or placement.  Students receive a total of 10 credits for their work in the clinic or placement.  6 credits are pass/fail; they are taken as this course, PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT I.   4 credits are graded by the clinic/site supervisor; they are taken as the co-requisite course, PBSP PLACEMENT II.  A total of 514 hours at the clinic or placement is required (approximately 43 hours per week).  Applications are accepted in the Spring semester preceding a student’s final year. Applications for this competitive program are then reviewed by a committee of faculty and administrators.  Enrollment is limited.  Pre-requisite – successful completion, by the end of the second-to-last semester, of all degree requirements except for total degree credits and/or the Advanced Practice Writing Requirement.  Eligibility – (1) A student’s class rank after the third semester (full-time students) or fifth semester (part-time students) must be in the top 60% of the class, which must be maintained through the fourth semester; (2) students selected for the program may not serve on executive boards of co-curricular activities, except that in the first year of the program the committee may waive this prohibition, since elections have long ago occurred; (3) students who, prior to the final semester, will have had more than four credits of clinical or externship coursework are not eligible to participate, except that during the first two years of the program (2014-15 and 2015-16), the selection committee may waive this limitation to accommodate current students who may have registered for, or completed, up to eight credits of such coursework; and (4) students who have registered for, or completed, a practicum are ineligible to participate in this program.  If the student will be participating as a Pro Bono Scholar in one of our clinics, it is recommended that the student have been in the same clinic during a prior semester.  This will be taken into account during the application review phase of the program.  Co-requisites – PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT PART II; PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM SEMINAR; PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PRACTICE WRITING TUTORIAL.  Please note: the Pro Bono Scholars Program was approved by the Faculty Council with a sunset provision.  If this program is not renewed, Spring 2016 will be the final offering.
        
PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT II (4 Credits) – The New York Court of Appeals’ Pro Bono Scholars Program allows selected students to sit for the bar exam in their final semester and then undertake 12 weeks of full-time pro bono service at an eligible, approved clinic or placement.  Students receive a total of 10 credits for their work in the clinic or placement.  6 credits are pass/fail; they are taken as the co-requisite course, PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT I.   4 credits are graded by the clinic/site supervisor; they are taken as this course, PBSP PLACEMENT II.  For pre-requisites and eligibility, see PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT I.  Co-requisites – PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT PART I; PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM SEMINAR; PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PRACTICE WRITING TUTORIAL.
    
PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM SEMINAR (2 Credits) – For students who are selected for the New York Court of Appeals’ Pro Bono Scholars Program.  Students in the seminar build upon the skills and professional values they learned up until that point in law school, including the skills most relevant to their pro bono experience: identifying and resolving ethical issues, client/witness interviewing, client counseling, legal research, writing, advocacy, negotiation, mediation, case/project management, and working with teams and supervisors.  They will also reflect upon their clinical or field experience, with special consideration of access to justice issues.   Grades are based on in-class exercises, weekly reflection papers, class participation, and an oral presentation on a relevant legal, professional, or justice issue.  Co-requisites – PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT PART I; PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT PART II; PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PRACTICE WRITING TUTORIAL.

PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PRACTICE WRITING TUTORIAL (2 credits) -
For students who are selected for the New York Court of Appeals’ Pro Bono Scholars Program.  Students in the program will build and refine a portfolio of documents, properly redacted, that they created during their clinical or field experience.  Midway through the program, an individual conference will be held with a faculty member to review the students’ written work and to provide feedback.  The final portfolio is due at the end of the program.  Grades are based on the quality of the student’s portfolio.  Satisfies the Advanced Practice Writing Requirement.  Co-requisites – PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT PART I; PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM PLACEMENT PART II; PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM SEMINAR.

PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY
(LEGAL ETHICS - 1000)
3 credits
This course studies the legal, moral and other responsibilities of lawyers. The New York Code of Professional Responsibility and the American Bar Association's Model Rules of Professional Conduct, along with cases, statutory material, secondary sources and problems, comprise the reading. The course addresses issues such as the lawyer's responsibility in civil and criminal trials; special problems of lawyers for entities, including governments and corporations; conflicts of interest, confidentiality and privilege; issues in negotiation; professional advertising and solicitation; and the lawyer's duties to improve the administration and availability of justice. Grades are based upon writing assignments, classroom exercises and a final examination.

PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY: GLOBAL CONTEXT
(LEGAL ETHICS - 1030)
3 Credits 
This course addresses the history, goals, structure, values, and responsibilities of the legal profession and its members in the United States and the European Union. While it focuses on the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct, the course takes a comparative approach to issues such as the lawyer’s responsibilities in civil and criminal matters, conflicts of interest, confidentiality and privilege, representation of entities, and the lawyer’s duties to improve the administration and availability of justice. Special attention will be paid to issues that arise in multi jurisdictional practices and the distinctions between common law and civil legal systems. Grades will be based on written  and oral in-class exercises, and a final examination. This course satisfies the Professional Responsibility requirement. 

PROPERTY
(PROPERTY - 1080)
4 credits
This course analyzes the various types of property interests, real and personal, recognized under U.S. law, the rights and obligations of holders of property interests, and the legal bases and public policies that lead to recognition of property interests, rights and liabilities. The course may include a discussion of property rights based on possession, including adverse possession, labor, gift and purchase, as well as estates in land, concurrent interests, landlord-tenant law, and land use regulations. Grades are based upon a final examination.

PROSECUTION CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 2070/2080)
8 credits: 4 in Fall, 4 in Spring
Students will be selected after a screening and interview process by the professors conducting the course. Selected students must commit to the course for the full academic year. Students will spend between 12 and 15 hours per week at a District Attorney's Office. Most students will be assigned to a part in a local criminal court that has jurisdiction over misdemeanor cases. The assigned students will personally and directly handle every aspect of a misdemeanor case including witness interviews, arraignments, discovery motions, pre-trial hearings, and plea bargaining on trial and sentencing. Some students will be assigned to an Appeals Bureau and handle appeals to the Court of Appeals, Appellate Division or Appellate Term in a wide variety of felony and misdemeanor cases. The students will, where appropriate, assemble or supplement the record on appeal. They will read and analyze the record on appeal and the defendant's brief. The students will crystallize the issues and the legal approach to the issues, research the law and write the brief. The students' names will appear on the briefs. The students will also assist in the preparation of the oral argument and will be present during oral argument. Students will also be required to attend classroom sessions at the law school. Subjects covered in the classes will include suppression motions and hearings, discovery, examination of expert and police witnesses and other subjects.  Pre-requisite: CRIMINAL LAW; 
Pre- or Co-requisite CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: INVESTIGATION

PROTECTIVE LEGISLATION FOR WORKERS
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 1080)
2 credits
This course considers the state and federal statutory schemes addressing wages and hours of work, unemployment, safety and health, injuries, and the major compensation regimes: e.g., minimum wage and overtime law, unemployment insurance benefits, safety and health law, workers' compensation, and Social Security law. Grades are based on a final examination.

PUBLIC HEALTH LAW
(HEALTH LAW - 1060)
3 credits
An introduction to the legal framework through which public health issues are addressed.  The course will examine federal, state, and local laws that attempt to keep the public healthy and safe from contagious diseases and the use of biological weapons, drug epidemics, gun violence, obesity, environmental hazards, and dangerous workplace practices, among other potential health risks.  The course will use legal and empirical tools to evaluate risks to population health, including by interpreting statistical data from studies and how it is presented by the media.  Topics addressed will include ethical considerations and how to define a legal right to health, to the extent one exists, when the focus is on the whole population or a particular group within that population, balancing competing concerns about economic impact, individual liberty, and social justice.  Grades will be based on take-home midterm and final examinations.  Prerequisites:  None, although Health Law is recommended.

PUBLIC SECTOR LABOR LAW
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 1060)
2 credits
This course considers the labor relations laws applicable to the public employee and the public employer. It covers the history and development of public sector labor law in the United States and in New York State with emphasis and concentration on the Public Employees Fair Employment Act, Article 14 of the New York Civil Service Law (Taylor Law). In this seminar each student leads a c

REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT
(PROPERTY - 1040)
2 credits
This course examines the law and practice of real estate development, including substantive discussion of such areas as:  assemblage of a development site; entitlements, air/development rights and permits; ownership structures; construction financing; agreements with contractors, designers, property managers and leasing agents; and exit strategies.  Students will be introduced to the economic considerations associated with a real estate development.  Special attention will be given to laws and regulations that impact the real estate development process in New York City.  Students will also be instructed on ethical issues that arise in this area of practice.  Grades are based upon a midterm (20% of grade) and a final examination (80% of grade).  Students would benefit from taking REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS prior to or concurrent with enrollment in this course.

REAL ESTATE FINANCE: COMMERCIAL
(PROPERTY - 2020)
2 credits
This course examines the law and process of commercial real estate finance.  It covers topics distinct from those covered in Real Estate Transactions.  Topics will include real estate finance applications whereby an investor or lender acquires a direct interest in real property, including fee and leasehold mortgages; those in which the investor or lender acquires an indirect interest, including mezzanine loans and preferred equity; and capital markets structures such as CMBS and REITs.  The course will also address participations, syndications, intercreditor arrangements, workouts and foreclosures.  Students will learn to review and analyze key provisions in financing documentation from the perspective of multiple stakeholders.  The course will address federal and New York State and City laws and regulations impacting the commercial real estate finance process.  Grades will be based on a midterm (20% of grade) and a final examination (80% of grade).  Pre- or Co-requisite: REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS or  REAL ESTATE FINANCE: RESIDENTIAL.

REAL ESTATE FINANCE: RESIDENTIAL
(PROPERTY - 1070)
2 credits
This course is designed to provide students with a working knowledge of the federal and state consumer protection laws affecting the origination and foreclosure of real estate mortgages, the regulation of the mortgage industry, and the foreclosure process, including title insurance, the priority of liens, the impact of bankruptcy filings and post-foreclosure proceedings such as evictions, surplus money proceedings and deficiency judgments. Grades are based upon a final examination.

REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
(PROPERTY - 1090)
3 credits
This course examines the fundamental legal and business building blocks of real estate transactions. Topics include the role of the lawyer, broker participation and responsibilities, the contract of sale and remedies for breach, deeds and closing, the title system, mortgages and foreclosure. This course provides a foundation for other advanced real estate courses. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: PROPERTY

REAL ESTATE WORKOUTS & BANKRUPTCY
(PROPERTY - 2030)
2 credits
This course will examine the consequences of real estate defaults, emphasizing the major current problems faced by real estate mortgagees, landlords, tenants and partners in default situations and mitigating drafting techniques that may be employed in the documentation stage.  Among the areas covered will be: negotiating and drafting a workout agreement; lender liability; cram down of bankruptcy plans including classification and "new value" issues; and effect of bankruptcy of a real estate partner.  Grades are based upon a research paper and a final examination.  Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS OR REAL ESTATE FINANCE: COMMERCIAL or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS.

REFUGEE & IMMIGRANT RIGHTS LITIGATION CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 5000/5020)
4 credits
The Refugee and Immigrant Rights Clinic is a two semester clinical program available to second and third year students and evening students after their third semester if they can work in the clinic during the day. St. John's University School of Law is partnering with Catholic Charities, Department of Immigration and Refugee Services, to give students the opportunity to provide direct representation in, among other things, asylum cases, cases under the Violence Against Women Act, and The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. Students provide representation from initial client contact through final resolution of the case. Students will interview clients, conduct full-scale fact investigations, perform legal research, develop a case theory that integrates the facts of the case and the relevant law, and provide representation at administrative hearings and court proceedings. Students will develop essential lawyering skills, substantive legal knowledge and professional responsibility while representing clients. Casework will be supervised by adjunct professors, who are experienced immigration rights attorneys from Catholic Charities. Clinic students will enroll in the Refugee and Immigrant Rights Clinic (two credits) and in a seminar component (two credits). The seminar meets for two (2) hours at either the law school or Catholic Charities. The seminar will provide the opportunity for students to learn and develop essential lawyering skills required in client representation, learn substantive areas of immigration law, and participate in roundtable discussions. Lawyering skills classes will include discussion of interviewing, cross-cultural lawyering, case theory and strategy, fact investigation, use of and preparation of experts, and direct and cross-examination. At roundtable discussions, students will present a client's case, identifying a particular complex legal, factual or strategy issue for discussion by the group. This two-semester course will maximize each student's opportunity to see a case from start to finish. Students will spend thirteen (13) hours a week working on cases at the Catholic Charities Office, or in the field investigating a case or appearing at an administrative or court proceeding. Students will be chosen based upon an interview with the professors.

REGULATION OF MUTUAL FUNDS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 3020)
2 credits
This course will address the federal regulation of the asset management industry by focusing on publicly traded mutual funds and the investment advisers who provide advice to these mutual funds. Publicly traded mutual funds are the largest part of the asset management industry, managing $18.2 trillion in assets. In contrast, hedge funds and private equity funds, the two most prominent private asset management types, manage $3 trillion and $3.5 trillion, respectively. In large part, this is a course about the regulatory structure that governs the publicly traded mutual fund, focusing on the Investment Company Act of 1940 and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and the SEC regulations under these two acts. But the course will also touch on state law issues that are relevant to the asset management industry. Particular attention is devoted to the definition of a mutual fund, organizing a mutual fund, restrictions on affiliated transactions, investment objectives, distribution practices, including fund "supermarkets" and prospectus disclosure requirements. The course also covers issues relating to the independence of directors, governance rights of shareholders, advisory fees and expenses, codes of ethics, and trading practices. Class discussion will examine the roles of in-house counsel to the fund manager, and independent counsel to the fund and its disinterested directors. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

REMEDIES
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE - 2020)
3 credits
The question of what remedy a plaintiff should seek is present in every case, no matter the size, location or subject matter of the litigation.  Yet remedies for legal wrongs are often mentioned only briefly in courses on substantive legal subjects.  This course provides a deeper exploration of common legal and equitable remedies, specifically injunctions, compensatory damages, punitive damages, declaratory judgments, specific performance and restitution.  The course will examine the proof required for each remedy and how the remedy varies based on the nature of the lawsuit (including cases involving land disputes, personal injury claims, business torts including fraud, and commercial contracts). The class will be taught primarily through the use of problems drawn from actual cases.  Grades will be based on class participation and a final examination.

REPRESENTING CLIENTS IN COMPLEX LITIGATION
(STATE AND FEDERAL PRACTICE – 4010)
2 credits
This course will require students to consider all aspects of a prolonged, complex business-oriented litigation from the perspective of the client.  Utilizing a real case from federal court involving multiple parties over multiple years (the case may vary from year to year), we will investigate what the client's interest is: how to best protect it; how to minimize transaction costs; how to share common interests, tasks and expenses; how to deal with governmental parties (federal, state, municipal); how to achieve the best result for the client.  We will consider how these factors may vary among clients: large conglomerates; "Mom and Pop" businesses; companies with much at risk regardless of size; those with little at risk.  The availability of insurance frequently plays a role in a company's defense strategy, and the use of the declaratory judgment action to clarify insurance coverage will be examined.  Students will be assigned a client to represent in retaining counsel, negotiating common-defense agreements, drafting case management orders pursuant to the Manual for Complex Litigation, and brainstorming regarding the client's short-term tactics and long-term strategy to seek the desired result. Grades will be based on daily written assignments, oral presentations and a final exam.

REPRESENTING TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 4040)
1 credit
This course examines current issues that arise in the representation of trustees in the bankruptcy process. Among other issues, the course will examine the powers and duties of a trustee, the role a trustee plays in different contexts, and the relationship between a trustee and the Office of the United States Trustee. The differing powers, duties, and roles of a trustee in Chapter 7, 11, 12 & 13 cases will be explored. Evaluation will be based on an examination, but class participation is required and may be factored into the final grade. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS.

SALARY NEGOTIATION AND ARBITRATION IN SPORTS
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 3045)
1 credit
This is an intensive course that explores the salary negotiation and arbitration procedures for Major League Baseball (MLB) and the National Hockey League (NHL). The course takes an in-depth comparative look at MLB and NHL’s rules relating to salary arbitration.  A portion of the course will include an NHL mock contract negotiation and an MLB mock salary arbitration.  The students will be tasked with researching a player, developing negotiation and hearing strategies, and applying oral advocacy skills in a mock negotiation and salary arbitration.  Grades are based upon the class participation, including performance in a mock NHL contract negotiation and a mock MLB salary arbitration.

SCHOLARLY RESEARCH & WRITING
(LEGAL RESEARCH & WRITING - 1060)
2 credits
This course guides students through the process of completing substantial scholarly research and writing projects, including the professional and ethical requirements for academic legal writing. Grades will be based on satisfactory completion of a series of writing assignments, culminating in a final product of at least 8,000 words, inclusive of footnotes and/or endnotes that may be used to meet the Scholarly Writing Requirement. Preference will be given to students who have not already completed the Scholarly Writing Requirement.

SECURED TRANSACTIONS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 2050)
3 credits
In a secured transaction, a borrower gives the lender rights in the borrower's personal property in the event that the loan is not repaid. This course provides broad coverage of the primary pertinent statute, Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code, but also gives attention to key related provisions of the Bankruptcy Code. Grades are based upon a final examination.

SECURITIES ARBITRATION CLINIC
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 5050)
4 credits
The Securities Arbitration Clinic is a one-semester in- house, live-client, clinical program available to second and third year students. The Clinic will assist under-served New York small investors with securities disputes in arbitration before the  primary self-regulatory organization ("SRO") in the securities industry, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). The students will provide representation in, among other things, churning and unauthorized trading, unsuitability, misrepresentation, and failure to supervise cases under the Rules and Procedures of FINRA and relevant state and federal securities laws. Students provide representation from initial client contact through confirming or vacating arbitration awards in court. Students may perform client and witness interviews, conduct full-scale investigations, perform trading and suitability analyses, perform legal research, draft all pleadings including statements of claim, answers, replies, and motions; participate in discovery; attend pre-hearing conferences, represent clients at arbitration hearings and at court hearings; represent clients at mediations and settlement negotiations and draft settlement agreements. Students will develop essential lawyering skills, substantive legal knowledge and professional responsibility while representing clients. A Clinical Professor supervises students in all aspects of client representation. Clinic students are required to attend a weekly 2-hour seminar component. Additionally, students are required to work in the Clinic 13 hours a week. The Clinic is located at the St. John's Queens campus. Students will be selected based upon an interview with the professor and submission of a resume, cover letter, writing sample and transcript.

SECURITIES REGULATION
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 2070)
3 credits
This course will focus on the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. With respect to the former, the course will particularly emphasize the public distribution process, registration, proxy regulation, regulation of tender offers and corporate repurchases, short-swing trading by corporate insiders and the anti-fraud provisions (including Rule 10B-5 and civil liability). The course will also examine the professional responsibilities of securities lawyers and other professionals and will touch upon regulation of securities exchanges and the over-the-counter market and regulation of brokers and dealers. Grades are based upon a final examination.
Pre-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

SECURITIZATION, STRUCTURAL FINANCE & CAPITAL MARKETS
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 4010)
2 credits
This course will examine the legal structure of securitization, a trillion-dollar industry. Securitization is the process by which a company sells its receivables (debts owed to it) to a special purpose entity (SPE) created specifically for that purpose. This form of financing can realize lower interest rates to the company selling the receivables than if the company borrowed against its receivables and kept title. The course will touch on various legal issues raised by this industry, including secured transactions, bankruptcy, corporate finance, securities regulation, corporate governance, and the role that legal opinions play throughout the deal process. The course will be graded based upon an inclass exam (80%) and class participation (20%). Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS or SECURED TRANSACTIONS or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS.

SMALL BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY
(BANKRUPTCY LAW - 4030)
1 credit
This course will address and discuss the problems encountered by, and the possible solutions for small business entities (corporations, partnerships, and LLC's) in financial distress. In addition to facing all the same inherent problems that large businesses have in reorganizing and restructuring, small businesses face added burdens with regard to the inherent costs of successful reorganization and access to quality financial and legal advice. Likewise, small business creditors often look at huge write-offs that might be mitigated by a successful reorganization process. The goal is for the students to obtain a thorough understanding of the many issues involved in small business and agricultural bankruptcies. Evaluation will be based on an examination, but class participation maybe factored into the final grade. Pre-requisite for J.D. students: CREDITORS' RIGHTS or CONSUMER BANKRUPTCY or BUSINESS BANKRUPTCY REORGANIZATIONS.

SOCIAL MEDIA AND THE LAW
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 2060)
2 credits
Social and digital media has dramatically impacted everyday life. Individuals increasingly communicate online, and businesses increasingly use social and digital media to advertise products, promote brands and engage with customers in new ways. The legal world is also being affected by social media, in areas of law that include privacy, intellectual property, free speech, labor and employment, litigation procedure, wills and estates, advertising, securities, and more. From Facebook to Twitter, Linkedin and Instagram, the array of social media platforms is creating new legal challenges to consider and solve. This course will examine the increasing ways in which social and digital media use by individuals and companies impacts the law and compels the creation of laws and regulations to address social media use. Students will discover and learn how to effectively address trending legal issues for clients, and will be ready to embrace the next age of law and business with their best legal mind and digital foot forward. This course also provides students with lessons on utilizing social media platforms in a professional capacity, and effectively marketing themselves and their capabilities to employers and clients. Grades will be based on a final examination.

SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENTS
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 2090)
1 credit
This course provides students with an introduction to understanding the fundamental concepts of the Software License Agreement, a foundational building block for attorneys focusing on intellectual property and technology.  Students will learn about the significance of standard terms comprising a software license agreement and how to identify potential licensing issues. Classroom work will include (a) identifying and clearly communicating issues resulting from the software vendor's and customer's positions, (b) revising the vendor's standard software license agreement from the perspective of the customer, and (c) negotiating contract terms at issue.  At the culmination of the course, students will have the option to tour Google's NYC office with the instructor and have an informal lunch with other Google attorneys.  Grades will be based on classroom participation, written exercises, and a final examination.

SPECIAL EDUCATION LAW
(EDUCATION LAW - 1010)
2 credits
Students with disabilities between the ages of three and eighteen are entitled to a free and appropriate public education. This course will cover the federal statute providing an enforceable remedy to parents of primary and secondary students with disabilities. Students will learn the requisites of a legally enforceable Individual Education Program. There will be special emphasis on an understanding of due process hearings, appeals to the State Review Office and the right to obtain further review in the federal courts. Students taking this course will be expected to acquire: an understanding of the constitutional principles impacting special education; understanding the role and influence of various players in the special education arena, including administrative agencies (federal, state, and local), schools and parents; a working knowledge of major federal statutes (IDEA, Section 504 of the Individual with Disabilities Act of 1973 and No Child Left Behind) and leading court precedent; an ability to use various procedural approaches to special education problems; an ability to apply statutes, regulations, case law, and policy analysis to a series of fact patterns; and an understanding of the hearing and appeals process.  Pre-requisite: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

SPORTS LAW
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 1050)
2 credits
This course explores contemporary legal issues in intercollegiate, professional and Olympic sports. It examines antitrust, contract, constitutional, gender discrimination, international and labor law issues. A portion of the course will be devoted to the regulation of agents and the representation of professional athletes, including a mock contact negotiation exercise. Grades are based upon a final examination.

STARTUPS: FUNDAMENTAL LEGAL & BUSINESS CONSIDERATIONS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 4070)
1 credit
In this interactive, interdisciplinary course, students will be educated about the basic legal and business considerations attorneys need to know when their clients seek legal guidance about how to launch a startup. Students will be introduced to the fundamental theories and skills required to advance their clients’ interests in key aspects of startup businesses from the development of a business idea to the implementation of that idea into a viable business. Students will also be introduced to the legal, economic, ethical, psychological and conflict resolution issues that are inherent in start-up businesses.  This course will be taught in six segments covering the core development areas of any startup: (1) an overview of legal considerations and the lawyer’s role; (2) the legal considerations in establishing a business idea; (3) advising and counseling the client about choosing an appropriate business entity; (4) legal considerations in drafting a founders’ agreement; (5) advising and counseling the client about funding considerations and (6) advising and counseling the client about accounting and tax considerations.  The course will culminate in a final at-home exam, which requires students to write a legal memo to a client who seeks legal guidance about implementing a startup.  Grading will be based  on class participation (20%), lawyer checklist (10%), reflections (20%) and a take-home final (50%).  Pre-requisite: LAWYERING AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

STREET LAW: LEGAL EDUCATION IN COMMUNITY
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 6050)
1 credit
The Street Law Program offers students the exciting opportunity to teach a practical law course to members of the Greater Queens community. While serving the Queens community, law students will develop practical legal knowledge, professional responsibility, and important lawyering skills, such as the ability to organize complex legal ideas and communicate them effectively to an audience of non-lawyers. Law students will teach weekly on subjects such as constitutional law, civil rights, torts, consumer and housing law, and family law. The professor will observe the students' teaching and meet with them during the semester to discuss their performance. Law students will receive 1 pass/fail credit for their time teaching in the classroom. This course must be taken in conjunction with the Street Law Seminar. Interested students will be chosen for the course based upon an interview with the professor.  This course is capped at 12 students.  Co-requisite: STREET LAW SEMINAR

STREET LAW SEMINAR
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 6040)
2 credits
In addition to their teaching, law students will attend a two-hour weekly seminar at the law school. The seminar will educate law students on the substantive and policy issues to be taught. It will also introduce the law students to innovative and effective teaching methodologies appropriate for their audience. Law students will submit lesson plans and other written materials for the professor's review. The seminar will also include simulations, such as mock client interviews and negotiations, and student presentations. Law students will receive 2 letter-grade credits for the seminar. Grades for the course will be based on weekly written assignments, teaching performance, and participation in the seminar. The course must be taken in conjunction with StreetLaw: Legal Education in the Community. Interested students will be chosen for the course based upon an interview with the professor. This course is capped at 12 students.    Co-requisite: STREET LAW: LEGAL EDUCATION IN THE COMMUNTY

SUMMER EXTERNSHIP SEMINAR
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS - 2045)
1 credit
This 1-credit seminar is required when a student is taking an Externship Placement for the first time during the summer.  It will meet for seven weeks, two hours per class.  The student will be required to keep time sheets and a written reflection on their work at the placement.  The first thirty minutes or so of each class will be devoted to the students’ reflections.  That discussion will include issues of ethics, confidentiality, workplace environment (including collaboration) and professionalism.  The balance of the course will focus on lawyering skills, including fact investigation and evaluation; interviewing and counseling; writing letters, emails, and a Multistate Practice Test; and oral skills, such as presenting work to the mentor-attorney or judge, discussing the pros and cons of a case, orally synthesizing the law and the facts to tell an effective story, speaking assertively, and communicating effectively to clients.  A student who goes on to take a fall or spring externship after this Summer Externship Seminar must enroll in the Externship Seminar (2 credits), and a student who takes a third subsequent externship in the fall or spring must enroll in the Externship Seminar – Advanced.  A student who takes no fall or spring externships but takes a second summer externship must enroll in the Externship Seminar – Advanced.  
Grading method:  
Practice writing assignments (30%)
Interviewing, counseling and fact-investigation exercises (45%)
MPT (20%)
Class participation (5%)
Mandatory: Time sheets with reflections
Co-requisite:  EXTERNSHIP PLACEMENT

SUPREME COURT AMICUS BRIEF
(BANKRUPTCY LAW – 3090 and 4000)
(2 credits)
For J.D. students, the course requires prior approval by the Director of the LL.M. in Bankruptcy Program Under the supervision and direction of the faculty member, the class will research, draft and file an amicus brief in a Under the supervision and direction of the faculty member, pending U.S. Supreme Court bankruptcy appeal (or Court of Appeals case if there is no appropriate Supreme Court appeal). Students will also study brief writing and the amicus concept. Written assignments will include at least one research memo and a section of the amicus brief. Grading will be based on the quality of the student's research and written work, and on the student's contribution to the amicus brief project. Although there is a classroom component to the course, the majority of the work will be concentrated in the period when the brief is written. Since the brief deadline could be in either semester, students must commit to both semesters of the course. Enrollment is limited, By permission of Director.

TAX - BASIC FEDERAL PERSONAL INCOME
(TAXATION - 1030)
3 credits
This is an introductory course. Its purpose is to give students an understanding of the basic principles underlying the federal income tax and to develop a realization of its effect on the economic life of the community. The course concentrates on fundamental concepts such as the scope of gross income, specific exclusions, assignment of income, the major items of deduction, the amount realized on property dispositions, basis for gain or loss, characterization of gain or loss as capital or ordinary, credits, the taxable year, and the mechanics of computation of income tax liability. The development of the present tax system, the fiscal aspects of the income tax and the legislative, administrative, and judicial processes in the enactment and enforcement of the income tax laws are briefly considered. Grades are based upon a final examination.

TAX FEDERAL CORPORATE INCOME
(TAXATION – 1020)
3 credits
This course applies the principles of federal income taxation to problems arising from use of the corporate form.  The tax consequences to the corporation and to the shareholders are considered.  Major topics covered in the course include the tax treatment of incorporations, dividends, stock redemptions, liquidations, mergers and other corporate reorganizations.  Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: TAX BASIC FEDERAL PERSONAL INCOME

TAX FEDERAL ESTATE AND GIFT
(TRUSTS AND ESTATES - 1050)
3 credits
The purpose of this course is to give the students an understanding of the federal estate and gift tax laws and their underlying principles. The history of these taxes is reviewed and a brief survey is made of estate and gift tax procedures. Major estate tax topics covered are inclusion and exclusion from the gross estate of interests owned by the decedent, property transferred by the decedent during his lifetime, life insurance, jointly owned property, property subject to a power of appointment, and annuities. Gift tax topics include complete and incomplete gifts, adverse interests, the annual exclusion, the exercise and release of powers of appointment, transfers incident to marital separations, gift splitting, and indirect gifts. Estate and gift tax problems cover adequate consideration, the marital deduction, the charitable deduction, valuation and computation of tax liability. Income in respect of a decedent and generation skipping transfers are also examined briefly. Grades are based upon a final examination.   

TAXATION OF BUSINESS ENTITIES
(TAXATION - 1070)
3 credits
A comparative survey of the federal income taxation of partnerships/limited liability companies, Subchapter C corporations (i.e., taxable corporations) and Subchapter S corporations (i.e., nontaxable corporations) - the principal entity choices for conducting business in the United States. Coverage includes formations, operations, distributions, sales of interests and liquidations. This course is especially suitable for students seeking an introduction to this material for a business or real estate practice. Students desiring more detailed exposure to corporate tax principles may also enroll in Tax: Federal Corporate Income. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Prerequisite: TAX BASIC FED PERSONAL INCOME

TORTS
(TORTS - 1040)
4 credits
The basic Torts course is an introduction to civil liability arising from breach of duties imposed by law, as distinguished from duties imposed by contract. The course will cover representative doctrines and theories of liability, including intentional torts, negligence and strict liability. Topics may include assault, battery, negligence, strict liability, products liability, misrepresentation, defamation and privacy. Grades are based upon a final examination

TRADEMARKS & UNFAIR COMPETITION
(INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - 1070)
3 credits
This course undertakes a detailed examination of the law of trademarks and unfair competition. We will focus primarily on federal protection of trademarks and trade dress under the Trademark Act of 1946 (the Lanham Act). Additional topics will include federal unfair competition law (including false advertising), state-law rights of publicity, and legal issues relating to trademarks on the Internet. While focus of this course is United States trademark and unfair competition law, we will also address international issues as they arise. Grades are based upon a final examination. Pre-requisite: INTRODUCTION TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

TRANSACTIONS IN EMERGING MARKETS
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 2050)
2 credits
This class will examine the various issues faced by attorneys when representing clients in business transactions in emerging markets or developing countries. Students will be expected to master doctrinal issues such as the regulation of mergers and acquisitions, the variety of business organizations recognized under the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions, and different aspects of cross-border contracting. Students will also consider a variety of topics that affect the work of lawyers, including how cultural differences affect business negotiations, how cross-border deals are structured in order to achieve business goals, and how workflow is managed in a complex business transaction. Grades will be based on a research paper and on class presentation. N.B. Students who take this course are not permitted to take Transactions in Emerging Markets-Travel course.  Pre-requisite or Co-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS OR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS

TRANSACTIONS IN EMERGING MARKETS-TRAVEL
(INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW - 3070)
3 credits
This class will examine the various issues faced by attorneys when representing clients in business transactions in emerging markets or developing countries. Besides classroom work, students will meet business and legal leaders in New York involved in emerging markets transactions and will travel to Romania during Spring Break for meetings and visits in that country. (There will be a program fee covering hotel, airfare, transportation and other program costs; special registration applies.) As part of the course, students will be expected to master doctrinal issues such as the regulation of mergers and acquisitions, the protection of foreign investments, the variety of business organizations recognized under the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions, and different aspects of cross-border contracting. There is particular emphasis on cross-cultural negotiation and dispute resolution. Students will also consider a variety of topics that affect the work of lawyers, including how cross-border deals are structured in order to achieve business goals and how workflow is managed in a complex business transaction. Grades will be based on a research paper, a reflection paper based on the travel component, and on participation both in class and in the various visits. N.B. Students who take this course are not permitted to take Transactions in Emerging Markets.  Pre-requisite or Co-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS OR INT'L BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS

TRANSNATIONAL EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS: THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 1090)
2 credits
Globalization has replaced unionization as the phenomenon that promises to have the greatest impact on workers and the workplace in developed world economies in the 21st century.  As a result, employment law is evolving from an almost exclusively local to a significantly international legal discipline.  This course will examine issues that arise in transnational employment relationships, introducing students to the legal and cultural complexities associated with international hiring, transfer, and termination of foreign and American expatriate employees.  Cases from U.S. and E.U. sources will be used to illuminate the issues, disputes, and outcomes that attorneys for the employer and the individual encounter in typical transnational employment situations.  Grades will be based on an in-class term sheet drafting exercise and a final examination. Prerequisite:  Contracts.  

TRANSNATIONAL LEGAL PRACTICE - PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW AND INSTITUTIONS
(TRANSNATIONAL LEGAL PRACTICE - 1060)
3 credits
This course introduces students to the core concepts of public international law and international organizations.  The course will cover the origins and sources of international law (treaty, custom and other sources), the enforcement of international law (through courts and other dispute settlement bodies) and the central international organizations that regulate relations between states.  Students will learn how international organizations are formed, and how they make, interpret and enforce international law.  Upon completion of the course, students should be able to indentify whether a particular legal question is subject to international legal regulation, and if so, what international organization or regulatory body has jurisdiction over the issue.  Students will also be expected to understand the distinction between binding and non-binding international rules, and to explain the different types of international dispute resolution mechanisms, as well as the distinctions between international, domestic and transnational forms of dispute resolution.  As a practice-oriented course, this course requires students to participate in weekly role plays, which are intended to mimic real-life practice scenarios, as well as prepare writing assignments. Grades are based on participation in role plays, writing assignments, and a final exam.

TRANSNATIONAL LEGAL PRACTICE - CROSS BORDER TRANSACTIONS AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION
(TRANSNATIONAL LEGAL PRACTICE - 1070)
3 credits each
This course is one of the two core courses for the Transnational Legal Practice LLM.   The purpose of the course is to prepare students for cross-border practice in a global legal environment.  This course introduces legal systems in comparative perspective, with a focus on transnational business transactions, litigation and dispute resolution. Students will be introduced to the distinctions between civil law and common law jurisdictions, as well as the basic framework of the U.S. legal system, including: (1) structure of government; (2) principles of tort, property and contract law; (3) business organizations; (4) intellectual property; and (5) court litigation. Students will also learn cross-border business law, including: (1) sale of goods; (2) licensing; and (3) direct foreign investment.  Finally, students will be introduced to transnational dispute resolution, including mediation and arbitration.  As a practice-oriented course, this course requires students to participate in weekly role plays, which are intended to mimic real-life practice scenarios, as well as prepare writing assignments. Grades are based on participation in role plays, writing assignments, and a final exam. 

TLP LEGAL WRITING I
(TRANSNATIONAL LEGAL PRACTICE - 1030)
3 credits
TLP Legal Research, Analysis, & Writing I - The first course in a two-semester sequence, this course teaches Transnational Legal Practice LL.M. students legal research, analysis, and writing. Enrollment in TLP Legal Research, Analysis, & Writing I automatically enrolls the student in TLP Legal Research, Analysis, & Writing II. The aim of this two-semester sequence is to help students analyze and brief cases, analyze and answer hypothetical questions in essay format, locate and understand standard legal research materials in English, and communicate with clients and other legal counsel in both written and spoken English. Students will be expected to complete all assigned reading, research, and writing work in a timely and professional manner and demonstrate this through effective class participation (25%). Written and oral exercises and assignments will also be assigned and graded (75%).

TLP LEGAL WRITING II
(TRANSNATIONAL LEGAL PRACTICE - 1040)
2 credits
TLP Legal Research, Analysis, & Writing II - The second course in a two-semester sequence, this course teaches Transnational Legal Practice LL.M. students legal research, analysis, and writing. Enrollment in TLP Legal Research, Analysis, & Writing I automatically enrolls the students in TLP Legal Research, Analysis, & Writing II. The aim of this two-semester sequence is to help students analyze and brief cases, analyze and answer hypothetical questions in essay format, locate and understand standard legal research materials in English, and communicate with clients and other legal counsel in both written and spoken English. Students will be expected to complete all assigned reading, research, and writing work in a timely and professional manner and demonstrate this through effective class participation (25%). Written and oral exercises and assignments will also be assigned and graded (75%).

TPS - INTERNATIONAL LAW
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES – 6080)
1 -2 credits
TPS – IL is a skills-based course focused on public international law and international organizations.  As a skills course, it presents doctrinal issues and legal materials as they arise in the practice of public international law and legal practice within international organization and other institutions.  The course is designed to be taught concurrently with International Law.  Students will be introduced to the practice of public international law including: (1) formation and interpretation of treaties; (2) creation of and rules governing international organizations and institutions; and (3) resolution of disputes and enforcement of international law through domestic and international institutions.  Topics covered include international law governing trade, investment, use of force, economic regulation, the environment, human rights, and international criminal law. Students will learn how to work with the sources of international law, including treaties and customary international law, as well as the interaction of domestic and international law.  They will learn and practice skills of diplomatic negotiation and communication, oral and written advocacy before international dispute settlement bodies and courts, and the process of drafting resolutions at international organizations.  As a practice-oriented course, TPS PILI requires students to participate in role plays that simulate real-life practice scenarios and complete short written assignments (“work product”) that complement the role plays. Grades will be based on participation and performance in weekly simulated exercises ("role plays"), two short writing assignments, and a one-hour final exam. Co-requisite: International Law

TPS – INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS
(INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STUDIES – 6090)
1 -2 credits
TPS – IBT is a skills-based course focused on transnational business transactions. As a skills course, it presents doctrinal materials and legal issues as they arise in cross-border practice.  Students will also be introduced to the practice of cross-border business transactions, including: (1) sale of goods; (2) licensing; and (3) direct foreign investment.  They will learn and practice skills of client communication, negotiation with counter-parties, and conduct before regulatory entities.  They will also learn drafting of term sheets and portions of contracts, as well as advisory memos to clients.   The 2-credit version of this course also focuses on transnational dispute resolution.  Students are introduced to the skills practice of transnational dispute resolution, including mediation and arbitration. As a practice-oriented course, TPS – IBT requires students to participate in role plays that simulate real-life practice scenarios and complete short written assignments (“work product”) that complement the role plays. Grades will be based on participation and performance in weekly simulated exercises ("role plays"), two short writing assignments, and a one-hour final exam. Co-requisite: International Business Transactions.

TRIAL ADVOCACY
(ADVOCACY AND LEGAL SKILLS – 2065)
The course emphasizes learning basic trial advocacy skills, including voir dire, opening statements, summation, direct and cross examinations, evidentiary procedures, and working with expert witnesses. The course culminates in student teams litigating a full-day criminal or civil trial based upon a specially developed case file. The subject matter of the course will cover both civil and criminal trials. Grades are based upon in-class exercises (30%) and a mock trial (70%).  A student who takes this course may not also take Trial Advocacy -- Criminal or Trial Advocacy (Intensive).  Pre- or co-requisite: EVIDENCE.

TRUSTS AND ESTATES
(TRUSTS AND ESTATES - 1040)
4 credits
This course treats intestate succession, wills, trusts, and future interests as integrated elements in the planning of family property settlements. Income, estate and gift tax implications of various arrangements are discussed, to the extent necessary to illuminate the nontax material. Fiduciary and investment aspects of the law of trusts are analyzed, as are the traditional construction, class gift and perpetuity problem areas. Grades are based upon a final examination.

UNINCORPORATED BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS
(BUSINESS AND FINANCE LAW - 4000)
2 credits
The course will cover the law relating to agency and unincorporated business entities, including general and limited partnerships and limited liability companies. The subject matter of the course will include basic agency concepts, bases of authority, termination of agency, and the relationships between principal, agent, and third parties. As to unincorporated business entities, the subject matter will include partnership concepts including liabilities, rights and duties of partners, dissolution, winding up and termination with respect to both general and limited partnerships. These concepts will also be addressed in relation to limited liability companies. A brief introduction to other unincorporated entities may cover sole proprietorships, business trusts, professional corporations and associations and franchises. Grades will be based on a final examination.  Pre-requisite: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS 

U.S. LEGAL ANALYSIS & WRITING I (USLS)
(US LEGAL STUDIES FOREIGN LAW GRADUATE - 1010)
2 credits
The first course in a two-semester sequence, this course introduces LL.M. students to the idioms and forms of U.S. legal writing. An emphasis will be placed on predictive writing. Grades will be based upon periodic assignments and a re-write of those assignments.

U.S. LEGAL ANALYSIS & WRITING II (USLS)
(US LEGAL STUDIES FOREIGN LAW GRADUATE - 1030)
2 credits
The second course in a two-semester sequence, this course provides students with a comprehensive introduction to manual and electronic legal research and further develops their writing and analytical skills, focusing primarily on persuasive legal writing. Students will be introduced both to core research materials, such as case reports and annotated codes, and to more sophisticated techniques, such as using federal and state administrative materials, legislative histories, online research, law review articles, and legal databases. Grades are based primarily on periodic writing and research assignments.  Pre-requisite:  U.S. Legal Analysis & Writing I.

U.S. LEGAL RESEARCH (USLS)
(US LEGAL STUDIES FOREIGN LAW GRADUATE - 1015)
1 credit
This course is designed to give foreign-trained lawyers basic knowledge of US legal sources and research skills, using both hard copy and electronic sources and research tools, including the standard electronic search services and major online databases.

VALUATION AND REMEDIES IN BANKRUPTCY
(BANKRUPTCY LAW – 5090)
1 Credit
This course will examine valuation and remedy issues that arise in bankruptcy cases.  Topics considered may include valuations in dispute, valuation and finance theory, common methods of valuing a company and other unique assets such as IP, the proper role of the court in valuation disputes, and various remedies that valuation evidence can support, such as unjust enrichment and the avoidance remedies available under Sections 550 and 551 of the Bankruptcy Code.  With a dual focus on theory and practice, the course will also include some study of the actual valuation reports submitted and the remedies that resulted in leading valuation cases.  Grades will be based on a combination of participation and a research memorandum assignment of approximately 15 pages in length.  Pre-requisite: Creditors' Rights.

WAGE AND HOUR LAW: HOW TO CLASSIFY, SCHEDULE, AND PAY EMPLOYEES
(LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW - 2000)
2 credits
Students will examine in depth the federal, state, and local laws and regulations that address who qualifies as an employee, how much and often employees must be paid, and how they can be scheduled to work.  By the conclusion of this course, students will have a solid grasp of the fundamentals of federal, NY state and NY city wage laws and enforcement procedures in order to work for, represent, and advise employees, corporations, and government agencies in this vital, evolving, and frequently litigated area of law. Grades will be based on a final examination and class participation.

WHITE COLLAR CRIME
(CRIMINAL LAW - 1000)
2 credits
This course studies a range of federal statutes that define individual and corporate crimes involving fraudulent schemes, business crimes and public corruption. Specific statutes to be considered include those defining mail and wire fraud, obstruction of justice, perjury, racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations, and computer-related crimes. The course also will consider legal and investigative issues that relate to evidence gathering by prosecutors, grand juries and administrative bodies. Grades are based upon a final examination.  Pre-requisite: CRIMINAL LAW