Breakfast in the Classroom: Is it Worth it?
Shamima Khan, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Administration and Allied Health Sciences; Heidi Binder-Vitti, Research Vista, and Joel Berg, Executive Director, New York City Coalition Against Hunger
Objective: To assess the overall success of BITC program in New York City in terms of school breakfasts served.
Methods: Data collected for academic year 2008-2009 as required by law was used in this study. This data comprised of statistics of schools providing simple counts of how many meals (breakfasts and lunches) were served and schools that were participating in “breakfast in the classroom program” (BITC) and schools not participating.
Data Analysis: School information such as zip codes, number of breakfasts served, total number of class rooms and class rooms with BITC were utilized for data and statistical analyses. Number of breakfasts served (dependent variable) was summed by zip codes. Subsequently, the independent variable percentage of BITC class rooms in relation to total class rooms (with and without BITC) was developed.
Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics was utilized to describe the variables. A normality test was conducted on the dependent variable (school breakfasts served).
Results: We had a sample size of 137 school cohorts with distinct zip codes. Only 7 (5.1%) from this cohort served 100% of their breakfast in classroom (BITC) and another 6 (4.4%) had transformed at least 75% of the classrooms with BITC. We ran statistical analysis between two groups (“at least 75% of the classrooms with BITC” vs. “less than 75% of the classrooms with BITC”). Given the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, a non-parametric test (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test) was conducted. We found a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.0367).
Number of School Cohorts
|At least 75% of the classrooms with BITC
|Less than 75% of the classrooms with BITC
Conclusion: Although both groups in this study had varying percentages of classrooms with BITC, there were higher numbers of breakfasts served in the group with at least 75% of the classrooms with BITC.